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Maximum Marks: 100

Note: (i) Section A has six questions. Each carrying 15 marks each. Attempt any four.
(ii) Section B is compulsory and carries 40 marks.
1. What is Physical Distribution Management (PDM)? Why is PDM considered to be a critical area of overall supply chain management? Discuss the system or ‘total’ approach to PDM in detail.
2- Define SCM integration and discuss the four stages of Steven’s model of supply chain integration. Also, describe the strategies involved in SCM integration.
3. “Many innovations on technology-based approaches are well-suited to the enhancement of the effectiveness of Supply Chain Management”-Justify the statement by giving few applications of information technology in SCM.
4. What is Customer Profitability Analysis? Why has it gained importance in the recent times? Is it ethical to deny a customer who is not profitable?
5. Why is the location of warehouse important for the SCM? Discuss some methods for determining the location of the warehouse
6. What are the essential differences in the Supply Chain Management of Products vs. Services? Discuss the application of Supply Chain Management principles in Financial Services.

7. Read the following case and answer the questions given at the end.
Kozmo, the online convenience store to shut down
New York-based Kozmo, the 3-year-old company announced that it would stop delivery service in all nine cities it operates. New York-based Kozmo, which dispatched legions of orange-clad deliverymen to cart goods to customers’ doors, is the latest dream to evaporate in the market downturn. Amazon com, venture capital firm Flatiron Partners and coffee giant Starbucks were among the investors in Kozmo.

Kozmo said in December that investors promised a total of $30 million in private funding. But last month the company learned that an investor had backed out of a $6 million commitment. Kozmo executives had been working on a merger deal with Los Angeles-based PDQuick, another online grocer, sources said. The deal collapsed when funding that was promised to PDQuick did not materialize. Sources said Kozmo still has money but decided to close now and liquidate to ensure that employees could receive a severance package.
Just last month, Kozmo Chief Executive Gerry Burdo was upbeat about Kozmo’s future, saying he was looking to steer Kozmo away from its Internet-only business model and toward a “clicks and bricks” approach. But some analysts say Kozmo’s business model only made sense in the context of a densely packed city such as New York. Vern Keenan, a financial analyst with Keenan Vision, said the service had a chance to work in only a few other cities around the world, such as London, Stockholm or Paris. “This seemed like a dumb idea from the beginning,” Keenan said. “This grew out of a New York City frame of mind and it simply didn’t translate.”
Kozmo was started by a pair of twenty-something former college roommates. They got the idea for the company on a night when they craved videos and snacks and wished a business existed that would deliver it to them. Kozmo offered free delivery and charged competitive prices when it launched in New York. Though customers loved the service, the costs of delivery were high.
After co-founder and former Chief Executive Joseph park stepped down, Burdo slashed Kozmo’s overhead, instituted a delivery fee and oversaw several rounds of layoffs. The company also closed operations in San Diego and Houston. Burdo said last month that profitability was not far away. The company had reached a milestone last December when it reported profits at one of its operations for the first time. Kozmo later saw two more operations reach profitability as a result of brisk holiday business.
Online delivery companies have been among the most ravaged by the Internet shakeout. Kozmo’s rival in New York, Urbanfetch, shuttered its consumer operations last fall. Online grocers such as Webvan and Peapod have also struggled, and smaller operations such as and have dosed down. Peapod was days away from closing last year when Dutch grocer Royal Ahold agreed to take a majority stake.
From the very beginning, supply chain management was to be a core competency of Kozmo. The promising would deliver your order everything from the latest video to electronics equipment in less than an hour. The technology was superior, the employees were enthusiastic, the customers were satisfied. But eventually, Kozmo ran out of time and money.
(a) What, in your opinion, is the major reason for the failure of Kozmo?
(b) Do you think that Kozmo promised what its supply chain could not bear? What could have prevented its shut-down?
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Max. Marks: 80
Answer any five questions
All questions carry equal marks
– – –
1. What is advertising? Bring out clearly the changing concept of advertising in
modern business world.

2. Explain the objectives and functions of advertisement manager.
3. What is advertisement budget? How do you determine optimal expenditure through advertisement budget?

4. What are the characteristics of advertising media? Explain..
5. Write a short note on:
a) Visual layout.
b) Production traffic copy.

6. How do you measure the effectiveness of advertisement? Explain.
7. Define sales promotion? Explain the types of sales promotion.
8. Explain the merits and demerits publicity.
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Brand Management

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Brand Management
MaximumMarks: 80

1. Attempt any 5 questions. All questions are for 16 Marks.
2. Make suitable assumptions wherever necessary.

Q.1 (a) Explain the eight different questions that a product manager needs to answer to analyse current and potential customers. Explain each question with the help of a product category.

(b) Differentiate between potential and forecast. What are the objectives behind estimation of (i) market potential and (ii) sales forecasting?
Explain any two methods of estimating (i) market potential and (ii) sales forecasting.

Q.2 (a) Define competitor. Explain the four bases of competition and four levels of competition. Supplement your answer with example(s).

(b) Explain the three major factors in assessing the underlying attractiveness of a product category.
Q.3 What are the benefits of a successful marketing strategy? Which are the seven parts of a marketing strategy of a product? Explain the first five parts of this strategy with an example, in detail.
Q.4 (a) What do brands mean to you? What roles does a brand play for a manufacturer and a consumer? With examples, explain the different challenges a brand manager faces today.
(b) Choose a brand having its origin in India. Explain how it can be assessed on the basis of Customer Based Brand Equity (CBBE) model.
Q.5 (a) Pick a product or service category basically dominated by two main brands. Evaluate the positioning of each brand. Who are their target markets? What are the main points of parity and points of difference?

(b) Select a brand and identify all its brand elements that contribute towards development of its brand equity. Explain the role of each element towards development of brand equity of that brand.

Q.6 (a) If you had to launch a fast food restaurant in your city or town, what kind of marketing programmes will you design to build strong brand equity of the fast food restaurant?

(b) Choose a brand and identify all its marketing communication materials.
How effectively has the brand mixed and matched the marketing communication material?

Q.7 (a) Define brand equity management system. Explain the three steps of implementing brand equity management system.
(b) Enlist the quantitative and qualitative research techniques to identify potential sources of brand equity. Explain any one in detail.

Q.8 (a) Define brand product matrix. Select a firm having multiple brands and product categories and then identify its brand product matrix. Explain breadth of a branding strategy?
(b) Define brand extension. Explain the steps to be undertaken for successfully introducing brand extensions.

Q.9 (a) Give reasons for companies to market their brands globally. Explain the disadvantages of global marketing programmes.

(b) With examples, explain how global brands implement the strategies of localization and standardisation.
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MARKS : 80

N. B. : All cases are Compulsory.

How to Proofread like a Pro :
Tips for creating the Perfect Document

You’ve carefully revised and polished your document, and it’s been sent off to the word-processing department or a designer to be put into final form. You can breathe a sigh of relief, but only for the moment : You’ll still be proofreading what comes out of the printer. To ensure that any document is error-free, always proofread the final version. Following are some hints to help make your proofreading more effective.
 Multiple passes – Go through the document several times, focusing on a different aspect each time. The first pass might be to look for omissions and errors in content; the second pass could be for layout, spacing, and other aesthetic features; a final pass might be to check for typographical, grammatical, and spelling errors.
 Perceptual tricks – Your brain has been trained to ignore transposed letters, improper capitalization, and misplaced punctuation. Try (1) reading each page from the bottom to the top (starting at the last word in each line,) (2) Placing your finger under each word and reading it silently, (3) making a slit in a sheet of paper that reveals only one line of type at a time, and (4) reading the document aloud and pronouncing each word carefully.
 Impartial reviews – Have a friend or colleague proofread the document for you. Others are likely to catch mistakes that you continually fail to notice. (All of us have blind spots when it comes to reviewing our own work)
 Typos – Look for the most common typographical errors (typos): transposition (such as teb), substitution (such as economic), and omission (such as productivity)
 Mechanics – When looking for errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation, and capitalization, if you’re unsure about something, look it up in a dictionary, a usage book, or another reference work.
 Accuracy – Double –check the spelling of names and the accuracy of dates, addresses, and all numbers (quantities ordered, prices, and so on). It would not do to order 500 staples when you want only 50.
 Distance – If you have time, set the document aside and proofread it the next day.
 Vigilance – Avoid reading large amounts of material in one sitting, and try not to proofread when you’re tired.
 Focus – Concentrate on what you’re doing. Try to block out distractions, and focus as completely as possible on your proofreading task.
 Caution – Take your time. Quick proofreading is not careful proofreading.
Proofreading may require patience, but it adds creditability to your document.
Career Applications :
1. What qualities does a person need to be a good proofreader ? Are such qualities inborn, or can they be learned ?
2. Proofread the following sentence :
application of these methods in stores in San Deigo nd Cinncinati have resulted in a 30 drop in robberies an a 50 percent decling in violence there, according at the developers if the security system, Hanover brothrs, Inc.
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“He wouldn’t look me in the eye. I found it disconcerting that he kept looking all over the room but rarely at me,” said Barbara Walters after her interview with Libya’s Colonel Muammar al-Qadhafi. Like many people in the United States, Walters was associating eye contact with trustworthiness, so when Qadhafi withheld eye contact, she felt uncomfortable. In fact Qadhafi was paying Walters a compliment. In Libya, not looking conveys respect, and looking straight at a woman is considered nearly as serious as physical assault.
Nonverbal communication varies widely between cultures, even between subcultures, and the differences strongly affect communication in the workplace. Whether you’re trying to communicate with your new Asian American assistant, the Swedish managers who recently bought out your company, the African American college student who won a summer internship with your firm, or representatives from the French company you hope will buy your firm’s new designs, your efforts will depend as much on physical cues as on verbal ones. Most Americans aren’t usually aware of their own nonverbal behavior, so they have trouble understanding the body language of people from other cultures. The list of differences is endless.
 In Thailand it’s rude to place your arm over the back of a chair in which another person is sitting.
 Finnish female students are horrified by Arab girls who want to walk hand in hand with them.
 Canadian listeners nod to signal agreement.
 Japanese listeners nod to indicate only that they have understood.
 British listeners stare at the speaker, blinking their eyes to indicate understanding.
 People in the United States are taught that it’s impolite to stare.
 Saudis accept foreigners in Western business attire but are offended by tight – fitting clothing and by short sleeves.
 Spaniards indicate a receptive friendly handshake by clasping the other person’s forearm to form a double handshake.
 Canadians consider touching any part of the arm above the hand intrusive, except in intimate relationships.
It may take years to adjust your nonverbal communication to other
cultures, but you can choose from many options to help you prepare. Books and seminars on cultural differences are readily available, as are motion pictures showing a wide range of cultures. You can always rent videos of films and TV shows from other countries. Examining the illustrations in news and business magazines can give you an idea of expected business dress and personal space. Finally, remaining flexible and interacting with people from other cultures who are visiting or living in your country will go a long way toward lowering the barriers presented by nonverbal communication.
Career Applications :
1. Explain how watching a movie from another country might help you prepare to interpret nonverbal behavior from that culture correctly.
2. One of your co-workers is originally from Saudi Arabia. You like him, and the two of you work well together. However, he stands so close when you speak with him that it makes you very uncomfortable. Do you tell him of your discomfort, or do you try to cover it up ?
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To become better writers, people need to be evaluated, but taking criticism
from others is often difficult. The way you tell someone “ You did it wrong” can destroy goodwill and cooperation, or it can build the relationship and help the person learn from the mistake, improve performance, and retain self-esteem. To criticize more constructively, follow these suggestions :
 Get all the facts first : Don’t accept hearsay or rumors.
Find out specifically who did or said what, when, where, why, and how
 Don’t act in haste : Never act while you’re angry. Think things out before you write or speak, and then explain your criticism calmly, rationally, and objectively.
 Phrase your remarks impersonally : Criticize the mistake, not the person. Focus your remarks on the action only, and analyze it thoughtfully.
 Never criticize in an offhand manner : Treat the situation seriously. Take the time to state the problem in detail, explaining what was wrong and why.
 Avoid an abusive tone : Ridiculing someone, talking down to a person, or using sarcasm prevents people from accepting what you have to say.
 Make the offense clear : Don’t talk in generalities. Be specific about exactly what was done wrong.
 Preface the criticism with a kind word or a compliment : Start with a few words of praise or admiration, saying how much you value the person. First the good news, then the bad.
 Supply the answer : Explain how to do things right. Don’t dwell on the mistake, emphasize how to correct it and how to avoid repeating it.
 Ask for cooperation : Don’t demand cooperation. Asking makes the person feel like a team member and provides an incentive to improve.
 Limit yourself to one criticism for each offense : Don’t dredge up or rehash past mistakes. Focus on the current problem.
 End on a friendly note : Don’t conclude by leaving things up in the air, to be discussed again latter. Settle them now, and make the close friendly. Give the other person a pat on the back. Let the last memory of the matter be a good one.
 Forgive and forget : Once the criticism has been made, let the person start with a clean slate. Avoid looking for more mistakes, and give the person a chance to improve.
 Take steps to prevent a recurrence : Follow up to make sure the person is acting on your suggestions and doing things right.
If you follow these guidelines, constructive criticism can benefit you, your company, and – most important – the person you’re criticizing.
Career Applications :
1. Think back over the lessons you’ve learned in life. How did you benefit from some one telling you the truth about something you were doing wrong ?
2. With a partner, role-play a situation in which one of you is the boss and the other an employee. The boss is angry because the employee repeatedly arrives late for work, takes long lunches, and leaves 5 to 10 minutes early. However, the employee’s work is always excellent. After the role-play, analyze what the boss did right and what could be improved.
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As you prepare to write your sales letter, think carefully about your choice
of words. False or misleading statements could land you in court, so make sure your language complies with legal and ethical standards. To keep your sales letters within the limits of the law, review the legal considerations of these typical sales phrases :
 “Our product is the best on the market.” – This statement is acceptable for a sales letter because the law permits you to express an opinion about your product. In the process of merchandising a product, statements of opinion are known as “puffery,” which is perfectly legal as long as you make no deceptive or fraudulent claims.
 “Our product will serve you well for many years to come.” This statement from a sales brochure triggered a lawsuit by a disgruntled customer who claimed the manufacturer’s product lasted only a few years. The courts ruled that the statement was an acceptable form of puffery because the manufacturer did not promise that the product would last for a specific number of years.
 “We’re so confident you’ll enjoy our products that we’ve enclosed a sample of our most popular line. This sample can be yours for only $5.00! Please send your payment in the enclosed, prepaid envelope.” If you include a product sample with your sales letter, your readers may keep the merchandise without paying for it. Under the law, consumers may consider unordered goods as gifts. They are not obligated to return the items to you or submit payments for unsolicited merchandise
 “Thousands of high school students – just like you – are already enjoying this fantastic CD collection ! Order before March 1 and save !” If your sales letter appeals to minors, you are legally obligated to honour their contracts. At the same time, however, the law permits minors to cancel their contracts and return the merchandise to you. Sellers are legally obligated to accept contracts voided by minors and any goods returned by them. Legal adult status is defined differently from state to state, ranging from age 18 to age 21.
 “You’ll find hundreds of bargains at our annual scratch and dent’ sale! All sales are final on merchandise marked as is.” When you use the term as is in your sales letter, you are not misleading customers about the quality of your products. By warning consumers that the condition of sales items is less than perfect, you are not legally obligated to issue refunds to customers who complain about defects later on.
Career Applications :
1. Review two sales letters for content. List the “Puffery” statements in each letter.
2. Note any statements in these sales letters that appear questionable to you. Rewrite one of the statements, carefully choosing words that won’t be misleading to consumers.
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Mrs. Fields uses them. Mrs. Paul’s uses them. However, you don’t have to be in the cookie or fish business to work with electronic reports. More and more companies are adopting electronic reports over hard-copy reports to keep employees, managers, investors, and other stakeholders informed.
Computerized cash registers in Mrs. Fields cookie outlets are the heart of a sophisticated reporting system for monitoring and controlling operations. Rather than taking the time to write reports by hand, store managers enter data into the computer system by following report formats on their screen. Then they electronically transmit these reports to corporate headquarters in Park City, Utah. The computer system also serves as a two-way communication device, allowing store and corporate personnel to send messages back and forth in seconds. So Mrs. Fields corporate managers can quickly receive the information they need in order to track sales and productivity trends – and to spot potential problems – in more than 700 outlets around the world.
At Mrs. Paul’s a computerized reporting system allows production managers to continuously monitor and control the yield from the company’s fish – processing operation. The system calculates the production yield using the weight of the fish before it’s processed, the weight if abt scraosm and the weight of the finished fish meals. If the reports show that the actual yield drops below the expected yield, the managers can immediately adjust the equipment to improve the yield. The production managers have instant access to electronic reports at each stage of the operation, so they can find and fix problems more quickly than if they had to wait for printed reports.
FedEx, the well-known package-shipping firm, uses extensive satellite and computer technologies to track the location of every package in the company’s system. Customers can then access electronic reports to monitor the status of their shipments at any time. This tracking system not only helps the company serve its customers better, but it puts valuable information in the hands of customers with a click of the mouse. Like many companies, FedEx posts an electronic copy of its annual report and other corporate informational reports at its website.
As Mrs. Fields, Mrs. Pauls, FedEx, and other companies know, keeping customers, employees, investors, and other stakeholders informed with electronic reports is the only way to do business in the global workplace.

Career Applications
1. What advantages and disadvantages do you see in asking store managers at Mrs. Fields to file electronic troubleshooting reports immediately on the company’s intranet ?
2. What kinds of electronic reports might a company want to post on its website ?
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Note: Attempt any five questions. All questions carry equal marks

1. Discuss the changing scenario of business environment in India and its principal implications for the business.

2. (a) Explain the dualistic character of Indian economy and the problem of uneven income distribution.

(b) Outline the development of consumer movement in India.
3. (a) Write notes on (i) adjudication machinery for settlement of disputes, and (ii) Employees Pension Scheme, 1995.
(b) Enumerate the powers of the Central Government to control production, supply and distribution of essential commodities under the Essential Commodities Act, 1955.
4. Describe the important amendments proposed under the Companies (Amendment) Bill, 2003 and the additions proposed thereto by lrani Panel.
5. (a) Can SEBI compel a public company to get its securities listed on the stock exchanges while making a public issue? On what grounds can the listed securities be delisted by a stock exchange? State the rules in this regard.
(b) “The role of stock exchanges in India need not be over – emphasized”. Comment.
6. Describe the evolution of the concept of corporate governance and outline the various measures adopted in India to ensure good corporate governance.
7. Make a critical assessment of New Economic Policy keeping in view the long term objectives of economic development.
8. (a) What are the objectives of EXIM policy 2002 – 07? Explain its main provisions.
(b) Write an explanatory note on functions and coverage of WTO.
9. Distinguish between the following:
(a) Micro Environment and Macro Environment
(b) Economic Growth and Economic Development
(c) Money Market and Capital Market
(d) Entrepreneurship, Role and Promotional Role of Government

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Business Ethics

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Business Ethics

Marks – 80


1. Define business ethics?
2. What is kick-back in business?
3. What is unfair discrimination?
4. What is acid rain?
5. Define the term social responsibility in business?



6. Difference between transactional & transformational leadership?
7. Business & ethics are contradictory?
8. Explain the term ‘stealing trade secrets’
9. Explain whistle blowing
10. Mention 3 unethical practices in marketing?
11. What are the primary reasons for resources depletion?
12. Explain the objectives of social audit?


ANSWER any 4 questions (10 X 4=40)

13.discuss the role & import of ethics in business
14.explain the types of ethical issues in business
15.discuss about the qualities & features of CEO in business
16.analyses the various causes of pollution in developing countries
explain the principle obligations of a business firm
17.discuss in detail about unfair trade discrimination?

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Marks: 100
I. Answer ANY FIVE questions.
II. All questions carry 20 marks each.
III. Total numbers of questions are EIGHT.


Q.1. Write short notes on ANY TWO of the following
a. Globalization
b. Task and processes in formulating business strategy
c. TQM Philosophy
d. Characteristics of well formulated corporate objectives

Q.2. Describe Vision and Mission statements with suitable illustrations. What is the difference between vision and mission? How does business definition help in articulating the Mission statement?

Q.3. Describe Porter’s five forces model to analyse competition with reference to light commercial vehicle industry.
Q.4. Describe the GE multifactor portfolio matrix and state how the GE matrix is superior tool Vis a Vis the BCG matrix.

Q.5. a) Describe Ansoff’s matrix
b) What is the difference between market penetration and market development? Illustrate with suitable examples.

Q.6. What is “Best cost provider” strategy? What are the risks in pursuing this strategy?
Q.7. What strategic options a firm could follow when the firm is operating in a maturing industry?

Q.8. Describe the role of strategy supportive reward system with suitable illustrations.

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N.B.: 1 Attempt any Twelve Questions
2) Last two Questions are compulsory
Q.1. In the following statements only one is correct statement. Explain Briefly? (5 Marks)
i) An invitation to negotiate is a good offer.
ii) A quasi-contract is not a contract at all.
iii) An agreement to agree is a valid contract.

Q.2. A ship-owner agreed to carry to cargo of sugar belonging to A from Constanza to Busrah. He knew that there was a sugar market in Busrah and that A was a sugar merchant, but did not know that he intended to sell the cargo, immediately on its arrival. Owning to Shipment’s default, the voyage was delayed and sugar fetched a lower price than it would have done had it arrived on time. A claimed compensation for the full loss suffered by him because of the delay. Give your decision. Explain Briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.3. The proprietors of a medical preparation called the “Carbolic Smoke Ball” published in several newspapers the following advertisement:-
“£ 1000 reward will be paid by the Carbolic Smoke Ball Co. to any person who contracts the increasing epidemic influenza after having used the Smoke Ball three times daily for two weeks according to printed directions supplied with each ball. £ 1000 is deposited with the Alliance Bank showing our sincerity in the matter.
On the faith in this advertisement, the plaintiff bought a Smoke Ball and used it as directed. She was attacked by influenza. She sued the company for the reward. Will she succeed? Explain Briefly (5 Marks)
Q.4. Fazal consigned four cases of Chinese crackers at Kanpur to be carried to Allahabad on the 30th May, 1987. He intended to sell them at the Shabarat festival of 5th June 1987. The railway discovered that the consignment could not be sent by passenger train and asked Fazal either to remove them or authorize their dispatch by goods train. He took no action and the goods arrived at Allahabad a month after they were booked.
Fazal filed a suit against Railways for damages due to late delivery of the goods which deprived him of the special profits at the festival sale. Decide & explain briefly ? (5 Marks)

Q.5. ‘Lifeoy’ Soap company advertised that it would give a reward of Rs. 2000 who contracted skin disease after using the ‘Lifeoy’ soap of the company for a certain period according to the printed directions. Mrs. Jacob purchased the advertised ‘Lifeboy’ and contracted skin disease inspite of using this soap according to the printed instructions. She claimed reward of Rs. 2000. The claim is resisted by the company on the ground that offer was not made to her and that in any case she had not communicated her acceptance of the offer. Decide whether Mrs. Jacob can claim the reward or not. Give reasons. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.6. In each set of statements, only one is correct. State the correct statements & Explain briefly?
a) i) A bailee has a general lien on the goods bailed.
ii) The ownership of goods pawned passes to the pawnee.
iii) A gratuitous bailment can be terminated by the bailor even
before the stated time.
b) i) A substituted agent is as good an agent of the agent as a sub-
ii) An ostensible agency is as effective as an express agency.
iii) A principal can always revoke an agent’s authority. (5 Marks)
Q.7. A, an unpaid seller, sends goods to B by railway. B becomes insolvent
And A sends a telegram to Railway authorities not to deliver the goods to B. B. goes to the Parcel office of Railway Yard and by presenting R. R. (Railway Receipt) takes delivery of the goods and starts putting them in the cart. Meanwhile the Station Master comes running with the telegram in hand and takes possession of the goods from B. Discuss the rights of A and B to the goods in possession of Railway authorities. (5 Marks)

Q.8. X needs Rs. 10,000 but cannot raise this amount because his credit is not good enough. Y whose credit is good accommodates. X by giving him a pronote made out in favour of X, though Y owes no money to X. X endorses the pronote to Z for value received. Z who is holder in due course demands payment from Y. Can Y refuse and plead the arrangement between him and X Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.9. Will C has the right of further negotiation in the following cases: (B signs the endorsements) Explain briefly? (5 Marks)
i) ‘Pay C for my use’
ii) ‘Pay C’)

iii) ‘Pay C or order for the account of B’

Q.10. A promissory note was made without mentioning any time for payment. The holder added the words’ on demand on the face of the instrument. State whether it amounted to material alteration and explain the effect of such alteration. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)
Q.11. State whether the following instruments are valid promissory notes:
i) I promise to pay Rs. 5000 to B on the dearth of ‘B’s uncle provided that D in his will gives me a legacy sufficient for the promise of payment of the said sum.
ii) I hereby acknowledge that I owe X Rs. 5,000 on account of rent due and I agree that the said sum will be paid be me in regular installments.
iii) I acknowledge myself indebted to B in Rs. 5000 to be paid on demand for value received. (5 Marks)

Q.12. A Payee holder of a bill of exchange. He endorses it in blank and delivers it to B. B endorses in full to C or order. C without endorsement transfers the bill to D. State giving reasons whether D as bearer of the bill of exchange is entitled to recover the payment from A or B or C. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.13. Write a short note on the Doctrine of Indoor Management? Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.14. The shareholders at an annual general meeting passed a resolution for the payment of dividend at a rate higher than that recommended by the Board of Directors. Examine the validity of the resolution. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.15. In a prospectus issued by a company the Managing Director stated that the company had paid dividend every year during 1921 – 27, which was a fact. However, the company had sustained losses during the relevant period and had paid dividends out of secret reserves accumulated in the past. Examine the consequences of the observation made by the Managing Director. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.16. In a prospectus issued by a company the Managing Director stated that the company had paid dividend every year during 1921-27, which was a fact. However, the company had sustained losses during the relevant period and had dividends out of secret reserves accumulated in the past. Examine the consequences of the observation made by the Managing Director. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.17. A buys from B 400 shares in a company on the faith of a share certificate issued by the company. A tender to the company a transfer deed duly executed together with B’s share certificate. The company discovers that the certificate in the name of B has been fraudulently obtained and refuses to register the transfer. Advise A. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.18. A insured his house against fire. Later while insure, A killed his wife, severely injured his only son, set fire to the house and died in the fire. The son survived and sued the insurer for the fire loss, advice the insurer. Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.19. a) Satrang Singh admitted his only infant son in a private nursing home. As a result of strong dose of medicine administered by the nursing attendant, the child has become mentally retarded. Satrang Singh wants to make a complaint to the District Forum under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 seeking relief by way of compensation on the ground that there was deficiency in service by the nursing home. Does his complaint give rise to a consumer dispute? Who is the consumer in the instant case? Explain briefly?
b) Smart booked a motor vehicle through one of the dealers. He was informed subsequently that the procedure for purchasing the motor vehicle had changed and was called upon to make further payment to continue the booking before delivery. On being aggrieved, Smart filed a complaint with the State Commission under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. Will he succeed? Explain briefly?
c) Brittle and Company, a small-scale industry, sought nursing and financing facilities from its bankers by means of grant of further advances and adequate margin money in anticipation of good demand for its products. In failing to obtain this and having become sick, it proceeds against its bankers under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, Will it succeed? Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.20. X who was working as a truck driver had taken a general insurance policy to cover the risk of injuries for a period from 1.11.1998 to 30.11.1999. He renewed the policy for a further period of one year on 10.11.1999. On the same day, he met with an accident and suffered multiple injuries including fractures. X submitted the claim along with documents to the insurance company. The insurance company repudiated the claim on the ground that the premium for the renewed policy was received in the office only at 2.30 p.m. on 10.11.1999, while the accident had taken place at 10.00 a.m. on that day and hence there was no policy at the time of accident. Will X succeed if he files a complaint against the insurance company for this claim? Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.21. Avinash booked his goods with Superfast Freight Carriers at Delhi for being carried to Ferozabad. The goods receipt note mentioned that all the disputes would be subject to jurisdiction of the Mumbai Court. Avinash lodged a complaint for certain deficiency in service against the transporter in the District Forum at Delhi. Superfast Carriers contested that District Forum at Delhi had no jurisdiction to entertain the complaint as the head office of the transporter was at Mumbai and the jurisdiction has been clearly stated in the goods receipt not. Is the contention of the transporter tenable? Explain briefly? (5 Marks)

Q.22. With reference to the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, decide the following giving reasons in support of your answer.
i) Sukh Dukh Ltd. dispatched certain consignments of goods by road through Fastrack Roadways Ltd. The goods were unloaded and stored in a godown enroute on the suggestion of consignee. A fire broke out in the neighbouring godown spread to the godown and goods were destroyed. The Fastrack Roadways Ltd. claimed that there was neither negligence nor deficiency in service on their part and goods were being carried at “Owner risk” and since no special premium was paid, they were not responsible for the loss caused by fire. Whether Fastrack Roadways Ltd. is liable to pay damages to consignor?
ii) Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) formulated a scheme called ‘salary saving scheme’ under which employees of an organisation could buy an insurance policy. Premium due on each policy was collected by the employer from the salary of the employees nor did it issue any premium notice. When the widow of the deceased employee made a claim to LIC on the death of her husband, the LIC repudiated the claim on the ground that four installments of premium had not been paid. The widow was approached the consumer forum for redressal. Is the LIC liable for deficiency in service? Explain?
iii) Raman booked a ticket from Delhi to New York by Lufthansa Airlines. The airport authorities in New Delhi did not find any fault in his visa and other documents. However, at Frankfurt airport authorities instituted proceedings of verification because of which Raman missed his flight to New York. After necessary verification, Raman was able to reach New York by the next flight. The airline authorities’ tendered apology to Raman for the inconvenience caused to him and also paid as goodwill gesture a sum of Rs. 5,000. Raman intends to institute proceedings under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 against Lufthansa Airlines for deficiency in service. Will he succeed? (10 Marks )

Q.23. With reference to the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, decide the following giving reasons in support of your answer.
i) Sohn sent all relevant documents in an envelope regarding consignment of goods to a buyer in the USA through Fast Service Couriers. The documents did not reach the buyer as a consequence of which the buyer could not take delivery of the goods. By the time the duplicate copies of the document had been received by the buyer, the season of the goods was over. He claimed that he had suffered a loss of US $ 5,000 as a result of the negligence of the courier. The State Commission ordered the payment to be made by the Fast Service Couriers, but the National Commission in appeal reversed the order and ordered payment of US $ 100 only as per the receipt issued by the Fast Service Courier to the consignor at the time of the dispatch of the latter. Advise Sohan.
ii) Mahesh purchased a machine from Astute Ltd. to operate it himself for earning his liverhood. He took the assistance of a person to assist him in operating the machine. The machine developed fault during the warranty period. He filed a claim in the consumer forum against the company for deficiency in service. Astute Ltd. alleged that Mahesh did not operate the machine himself but had appointed a person exclusively to operate the machine. Will Mahesh succeed?
iii) Pillai purchased a car by taking a loan from Kerala cooperative Bank Ltd. and gave post-dated cheques to the bank not only in respect of repayment of loan instalments but also of premium of insurance policy for two succeeding years. On the expiry of the policy. Pillai’s car met with an accident. Will Pillai succeed in getting a claim against the
Bank ? (10 Marks)

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MARKS : 80

1) Attempt any four cases
2) All cases carries equal marks.
No: 1
Several MNCs are increasingly unbundling or vertical disintegrating their activities. Put in simple language, they have begun outsourcing (also called business process outsourcing) activities formerly performed in-house and concentrating their energies on a few functions. Outsourcing involves withdrawing from certain stages/activities and relaying on outside vendors to supply the needed products, support services, or functional activities.
Take Infosys, its 250 engineers develop IT applications for BO/FA (Bank of America). Elsewhere, Infosys staffers process home loans for green point mortgage of Novato, California. At Wipro, five radiologists interpret 30 CT scans a day for Massachusetts General Hospital.
2500 college educated men and women are buzzing at midnight at Wipro Spectramind at Delhi. They are busy processing claims for a major US insurance company and providing help-desk support for a big US Internet service provider-all at a cost upto 60 percent lower than in the US. Seven Wipro Spectramind staff with Ph.Ds in molecular biology sift through scientific research for western pharmaceutical companies.
Another activist in BOP is Evalueserve, headquarterd in Bermuda and having main operations near Delhi. It also has a US subsidiary based in New York and a marketing office in Australia to cover the European market. As Alok Aggarwal (co-founder and chairman) says, his company supplies a range of value-added services to clients that include a dozen Fortune 500 companies and seven global consulting firms, besides market research and venture capital firms. Much of its work involves dealing with CEOs, CFOs, CTOs, CIOs, and other so called C-level executives.
Evaluserve provides services like patent writing, evaluation and assessment of their commercialization potential for law firms and entrepreneurs. Its market research services are aimed at top-rung financial service firms, to which it provides analysis of investment opportunities and business plans. Another major offering is multilingual services. Evalueserve trains and qualifies employees to communicate in Chinese, Spanish, German, Japanese and Italian, among other languages. That skill set has opened market opportunities in Europe and elsewhere, especially with global corporations.
ICICI infotech Services in Edison, New Jersey, is another BOP services provider that is offering marketing software products and diversifying into markets outside the US. The firm has been promoted by $2-billion ICICI Bank, a large financial institution in Mumbai that is listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
In its first year after setting up shop in March 1999, ICICI infotech spent $33 million acquiring two information technology services firms in New Jersy-Object Experts and ivory Consulting – and command Systems in Connecticut. These acquisitions were to help ICICI Infotech hit the ground in the US with a ready book of contracts. But it soon found US companies increasingly outsourcing their requirements to offshore locations, instead of hiring foreign employees to work onsite at their offices. The company found other native modes for growth. It has started marketing its products in banking, insurance and enterprise resource planning among others. It has earmarket $10 million for its next US market offensive, which would go towards R & D and back-end infrastructure support, and creating new versions of its products to comply with US market requirements. It also has a joint venture – Semantik Solutions GmbH in Berlin, Germany with the Fraunhofer Institute for Software and Systems Engineering, which is based in Berlin and Dortmund, Germany – Fraunhofer is a leading institute in applied research and development with 200 experts in software engineering and evolutionary information.
A relatively late entrant to the US market , ICICI Infotech started out with plain vanilla IT services, including operating call centeres. As the market for traditional IT services started wakening around mid-2000, ICICI Infotech repositioned itself as a “Solutions” firm offering both products and services. Today , it offers bundied packages of products and services in corporate and retail banking and include data center and disaster recovery management and value chain management services.
ICICI Infotech’s expansion into new overseas markets has paid off. Its $50 million revenue for its latest financial year ending March 2003 has the US operations generating some $15 million, while the Middle East and Far East markets brought in another $9 million. It new boasts more than 700 customers in 30 countries, including Dow Jones, Glazo-Smithkline, Panasonic and American Insurance Group.
The outsourcing industry is indeed growing form strength. Though technical support and financial services have dominated India’s outsourcing industry, newer fields are emerging which are expected to boost the industry many times over.
Outsourcing of human resource services or HR BPO is emerging as big opportunity for Indian BPOs with global market in this segment estimated at $40-60 billion per annum. HR BPO comes to about 33 percent of the outsourcing revenue and India has immense potential as more than 80 percent of Fortune 1000 companies discuss offshore BOP as a way to cut costs and increase productivity.
Another potential area is ITES/BOP industry. According to A NASSCOM survey, the global ITES/BOP industry was valued at around $773 billion during 2002 and it is expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate of nine percent during the period 2002 – 06, NASSCOM lists the major indicators of the high growth potential of ITES/BOP industry in India as the following.
During 2003 – 04, The ITES/BPO segment is estimated to have achieved a 54 percent growth in revenues as compared to the previous year. ITES exports accounted for $3.6 billion in revenues, up form $2.5 billion in 2002 – 03. The ITES-BPO segment also proved to be a major opportunity for job seekers, creating employment for around 74,400 additional personnel in India during 2003 – 04. The number of Indians working for this sector jumped to 245,500 by March 2004. By the year 2008, the segment is expected to employ over 1.1 million Indians, according to studies conducted by NASSCOM and McKinsey & Co. Market research shows that in terms of job creation, the ITES-BOP industry is growing at over 50 per cent.
Legal outsourcing sector is another area India can look for. Legal transcription involves conversion of interviews with clients or witnesses by lawyers into documents which can be presented in courts. It is no different from any other transcription work carried out in India. The bottom-line here is again cheap service. There is a strong reason why India can prove to be a big legal outsourcing Industry.
India, like the US, is a common-law jurisdiction rooted in the British legal tradition. Indian legal training is conducted solely in English. Appellate and Supreme Court proceedings in India take place exclusively in English. Due to the time zone differences, night time in the US is daytime in India which means that clients get 24 hour attention, and some projects can be completed overnight. Small and mid – sized business offices can solve staff problems as the outsourced lawyers from India take on the time – consuming labour intensive legal research and writing projects. Large law firms also can solve problems of overstaffing by using the on – call lawyers.
Research firms such as Forrester Research, predict that by 2015 , more than 489,000 US lawyer jobs, nearly eight percent of the field, will shift abroad..
Many more new avenues are opening up for BOP services providers. Patent writing and evaluation services are markets set to boom. Some 200.000 patent applications are written in the western world annually, making for a market size of between $5 billion and $7 billion. Outsourcing patent writing service could significantly lower the cost of each patent application, now anywhere between $12,000 and $15,000 apiece-which would help expand the market.
Offshoring of equity research is another major growth area. Translation services are also becoming a big Indian plus. India produces some 3,000 graduates in German each year, which is more than that in Switzerland.
Though going is good, the Indian BPO services providers cannot afford to be complacent. Phillppines, Maxico and Hungary are emerging as potential offshore locations. Likely competitor is Russia, although the absence of English speaking people there holds the country back. But the dark horse could be South Affrica and even China
BOP is based on sound economic reasons. Outsourcing helps gain cost advantage. If an activity can be performed better or more cheaply by an outside supplier, why not outsource it ? Many PC makers, for example, have shifted from in – house assembly to utilizing contract assemblers to make their PCs. CISCO outsources all productions and assembly of its routers and witching equipment to contract manufactures that operate 37 factories, all linked via the internet.
Secondly, the activity (outsourced) is not crucial to the firm’s ability to gain sustainable competitive advantage and won’t hollow out its core competence, capabilities, or technical know how. Outsourcing of maintenance services, date processing, accounting, and other administrative support activities to companies specializing in these services has become common place. Thirdly, outsourcing reduces the company’s risk exposure to changing technology and / or changing buyer preferences.
Fourthly, BPO streamlines company operations in ways that improve organizational flexibility, cut cycle time, speedup decision making and reduce coordination costs. Finally, outsourcing allows a company to concentrate on its core business and do what it does best. Are Indian companies listening ? If they listen, BPO is a boon to them and not a bane.

1. Which of the theories of international trade can help Indian services providers gain competitive edge over their competitors?
2. Pick up some Indian services providers. With the help of Michael Porter’s diamond, analyze their strengths and weaknesses as active players in BPO.
3. Compare this case with the case given at the beginning of this chapter. What similarities and dissimilarities do you notice? Your analysis should be based on the theories explained.

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No: 2
Peru is located on the west coast of South America. It is the third largest nation of the continent (after Brazil and Argentina) , and covers almost 500.000 square miles (about 14 per cent of the size of the United States). The land has enormous contrasts, with a desert (drier than the Sahara), the towering snow – capped Andes mountains, sparkling grass – covered plateaus, and thick rain forests. Peru has approximately 27 million people, of which about 20 per cent live in Lima, the capital. More Indians (one half of the population) live in Peru than in any other country in the western hemisphere. The ancestors of Peru’s Indians were the famous incas, who built a great empire. The rest of the population is mixed and a small percentage is white. The economy depends heavily on agriculture, fishing , mining, and services, GDP is approximately $15 billion and per capita income in recent years has been around $4,3000. In recent years the economy has gained some relative strength and multinationals are now beginning to consider investing in the country.
One of these potential investors is a large New York based bank that is considering a $25 million loan to the owner of a Peruvian fishing fleet. The owner wants to refurbish the fleet and add one more ship.
During the 1970s, the Peruvian government nationalized a number of industries and factories and began running them for the profit of the state in most cases, these state – run ventures became disasters. In the late 1970s the fishing fleet owner was given back his ships and allowed to operate his business as before. Since then, he has managed to remain profitable, but the biggest problem is that his ships are getting old and he needs an influx of capital of make repairs and add new technology. As he explained it to the new York banker. “Fishing is no longer just an art. There is a great deal of technology involved. And to keep costs low and be competitive on the world market, you have to have the latest equipment for both locating as well as catching and then loading and unloading the fish”
Having reviewed the fleet owner’s operation, the large multinational bank believes that the loan is justified. The financial institution is concerned, however, that the Peruvian government might step in during the next couple of years and again take over the business. If this were to happen, it might take an additional decade for the loan to be repaid. If the government were to allow the fleet owner to operate the fleet the way he has over the last decade, the fleet the way he has over the last decade, the loan could be repaid within seven years.
Right now, the bank is deciding on the specific terms of the agreement. Once theses have been worked out, either a loan officer will fly down to Lima and close the deal or the owner will be asked to come to New York for the signing. Whichever approach is used, the bank realizes that final adjustments in the agreement will have to be made on the spot. Therefore, if the bank sends a representative to Lima, the individual will have to have the authority to commit the bank to specific terms. These final matters should be worked out within the next ten days.
1. What are some current issues facing Peru? What is the climate for doing business in Peru today?
2. What type of political risks does this fishing company need to evaluate? Identify and describe them.
3. What types of integrative and protective and defensive techniques can the bank use?
4. Would the bank be better off negotiating the loan in New York or in Lima ? Why?

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No: 3
The Backdrop
There seems to be no end to the troubles of the coloured – water giant Coca Cola. The cola giant had entered India decades back but left the country in the late 1970s. It staged a comeback in the early 1990s through the acquisitions route. The professional management style of Coca Cola did not jell with the local bottlers. Four CEOs were changed in a span of seven years. Coke could not capitalize on the popularity of Thums Up. Its arch rival Pepsi is well ahead and has been able to penetrate deep into the Indian market. Red in the balance sheet of Coke is becoming thicker and industry observers are of the opinion that it would take at least two decades more before Coke could think of making profits in India.

The Story
It was in the early 1990s that India started liberalizing her economy. Seizing the opportunity, Coca Cola wanted to stage a comeback in India. It chose Ramesh Chauhan of Parle for entry into the market. Coke paid $100 million to Chauhan and acquired his well established brands Thums Up, Goldspot and Limca. Coke also bagged 56 bottlers of Chauhan as a part of the deal. Chauhan was made consultant and was also given the first right of refusal to any large size bottling plants and bottling contracts, the former in the Pune – Bangalore belt and the latter in the Delhi and Mumbai areas.
Jayadeva Raja, the flamboyant management expert was made the first CEO of Coke India. It did not take much time for him to realize that Coke had inherited several weaknesses from Chauhan along with the brands and bottlers. Many bottling plants were small in capacity (200 bottlers per minute as against the world standard of 1600) and used obsolete technology. The bottlers were in no mood to increase their capacities, nor were they willing to upgrade the trucks used for transporting the bottle. Bottlers were more used to the paternalistic approach of Chauhan and the new professional management styles of Coke did not go down well with them. Chauhan also felt that he was alienated and was even suspected to be supplying concentrate unofficially to the bottlers.
Raja was replaced by the hard – nosed Richard Niholas in 1995. The first thing Nicholas did was to give an ultimatum to the bottlers to expand their plants or sell out. Coke also demanded equity stakes in many of the bottling plants. The bottlers had their own difficulties as well. They were running on low profit margins. Nor was Coke willing to finance the bottlers on soft terms. The ultimatum backfired. Many bottlers switched their loyalty and went to Pepsi. Chauhan allegedly supported the bottlers, of course, from the sidelines.
Coke thought it had staged a coup over Pepsi when it (Coke) clamed the status of official drink for the 1996 Cricket World Cup tournament. Pepsi took on Coke mightily with the famous jingle “Nothing official about it”. Coke could have capitalized on the sporty image of Thums Up to counter the campaign, but instead simply caved in.
Donald Short replaced Nicholas as CEO in 1997. Armed with heavy financial powers, Short bought out 38 bottlers for about $700 million. This worked out to about Rs 7 per case, but the cost – effective figure was Rs 3 per case. Short also invested heavily in manpower. By 1997, Coke’s workforce increased to 300. Three years later, the parent company admitted that investment in India was a big mistake.
It is not in the culture of Coke to admit failure. It has decided to fight back. Coke could not only sustain the loss, it could even spend more money on Indian operations. It hiked the ad budget and appointed Chaitra Leo Burnett as its ad agency. During 1998 – 99, Coke’s ad spend was almost three times that of Pepsi.
Coke is taking a look at its human resources and is taking initiatives to re – orient the culture and inject an element of decentralization along with empowerment. Each bottling plant is expected to meet predetermined profit, market share, and sales volumes. For newly hired management trainees, a clearly defined career path has been drawn to enable them to become profit centre heads shortly after completion of their probation. Such a decentralized approach is something of a novelty in the Coke culture worldwide.
But Alezander “Von Behr, who replaced Short as Chef of Indian operations, reiterated Coke’s commitment to decentralization and local responsiveness. Coke has divided India into six regions, each with a business head. Change in the organization structure has disappointed many employees, some of whom even quit the company.
Coke started cutting down its costs. Executives have been asked to shift from farm houses to smaller houses and rentals of Gurgaon headquarters have been renegotiated. Discount rates have been standardized and information systems are being upgraded to enable the Indian headquarters to access online financial status of its outposts down to the depot level.
Coke has great hopes in Indian as the country has a huge population and the current per capita consumption of beverages is just four bottles a year.
Right now, the parent company (head – quartered in the US) has bottle full of problems. The recently appointed CEO-E Neville Isdell needs to struggle to do the things that once made the Cola Company great. The problems include –
Meddling Board
Coke’s star- studded group of directors, many of whom date back to the Goizueta era, has built a reputation for meddling.
Moribund Marketing
Once world class critics say that today the soda giant has become too conservative, with ads that don’t resonate with the teenagers and young adults that made up its most important audience.
Lack of Innovation
In the US market, Coke hasn’t created a best – selling new soda since Diet Coke in 1982. In recent years Coke has been outbid by rival Pepsi Co for faster growing noncarb beverages like SoBe Gatorade.
Friction with Bottlers
Over the past decade, Coke has often made its profit at the expenses of bottlers, pushing aggressive price hikes on the concentrate it sells them. But key bottlers are now fighting back with sharp increases in the price of coke at retail.

International Worries
Coke desperately needs more international growth to offset its flagging US business, but while some markets like Japan remain lucrative, in the large German market Coke has problems so far as bottling contracts go.
When its own house is not in order in the large country, will the company be able to focus enough on the Indian market?


1. Why is that Coke has not been able to make profit in its Indian operations?
2. Do you think that Coke should continue to stay in India? If yes, why?
3. What cultural adaptations would you suggest to the US expatriate managers regarding their management style?
4. Using the Hofstede and the value orientations cultural models, how can you explain some of the cultural differences noted in this case?
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NO. 4
ABB Prvni Brnenska Stojirna Brno, Ltd. (ABB-PBS), Czechoslovakia was a joint venture in which ABB has a 67 per cent stake and PBS a.s. has a 33 per cent stake. This PBS share was determined nominally by the value of the land, plant and equipment, employees and goodwill, ABB contributed cash and specified technologies and assumed some of the debt of PBS. The new company started operations on April 15, 1993.
Business for the joint venture in its first two full years was good in most aspects. Orders received in 1994, the first full year of the joint venture’s operation, were higher than ever in the history of PBS. Orders received in 1995 were 2½ times those in 1994. The company was profitable in 1995 and ahead of 1994s results with a rate of return on assets of 2.3 per cent and a rate of return on sales of 4.5 per cent.
The 1995 results showed substantial progress towards meeting the joint venture’s strategic goals adopted in 1994 as part of a five year plan. One of the goals was that exports should account for half of the total orders by 1999. (Exports had accounted for more than a quarter of the PBS business before 1989, but most of this business disappeared when the Soviet Union Collapsed). In 1995 exports increased as a share of total orders to 28 per cent, up from 16 per cent the year before.
The external service business, organized and functioning as a separate business for the first time in 1995, did not meet expectations. It accounted for five per cent of all orders and revenues in 1995, below the 10 per cent goal set for it. The retrofitting business, which was expected to be a major part of the service business, was disappointing for ABB-PBS, partly because many other small companies began to provide this service in 1994, including some started by former PBS employees who took their knowledge of PBS-built power plants with them. However, ABB-PBS managers hoped that as the company introduced new technologies, these former employees would gradually lose their ability to perform these services, and the retrofit and repair service business, would return to ABB-PBS.
ABB-PBS dominated the Czech boiler business with 70 per cent of the Czech market in 1995, but managers expected this share to go down in the future as new domestic and foreign competitors emerged. Furthermore, the west European boiler market was actually declining because environmental laws caused a surge of retrofitting to occur in the mid -1980 s, leaving less business in the 1990 s. Accordingly ABB-PBS boiler orders were flat in 1995.
Top managers at ABB-PBS regarded business results to date as respectable, but they were not satisfied with the company’s performance. Cash flow was not as good as expected. Cost reduction had to go further. The more we succeed, the more we see our shortcomings” said one official.
The first round of restructuring was largely completed in 1995, the last year of the three-year restructuring plan. Plan logistics, information systems, and other physical capital improvements were in place. The restricting included :
• Renovating and reconstructing workshops and engineering facilities.
• Achieving ISO 9001 for all four ABB-PBS divisions. (awarded in 1995)
• Transfer of technology from ABB (this was an ongoing project)
• Intallation of an information system.
• Management training, especially in total quality assurance and English language.
• Implementing a project management approach.
A notable achievement of importance of top management in 1995 was a 50 per cent increase in labour productivity, measured as value added per payroll crown. However, in the future ABB-PBS expected its wage rates to go up faster than west European wage rates (Czech wages were increasing about 15 per cent per year) so it would be difficult to maintain the ABB-PBS unit cost advantage over west European unit cost.
The Technology Role for ABB-PBS
The joint venture was expected from the beginning to play an important role in technology development for part of ABB’s power generation business worldwide. PBS a.s. had engineering capability in coal – fired steam boilers, and that capability was expected to be especially useful to ABB as more countries became concerned about air quality. (When asked if PBS really did have leading technology here, a boiler engineering manager remarked, “Of course we do. We burn so much dirty coal in this country; we have to have better technology”)
However, the envisioned technology leadership role for ABB-PBS had not been realized by mid – 1996. Richard Kuba, the ABB-PBS managing director, realized the slowness with which the technology role was being fulfilled, and he offered his interpretation of events.
“ABB did not promise to make the joint venture its steam technology leader. The main point we wanted to achieve in the joint venture agreement was for ABB-PBS to be recognized as a full-fledged company, not just a factory. We were slowed down on our technology plans because we had a problem keeping our good, young engineers. The annual employee turnover rate for companies in the Czech Republic is 15 or 20 per cent, and the unemployment rate is zero. Our engineers have many other good entrepreneurial opportunities. Now we’ve begun to stabilize our engineering workforce. The restructing helped. We have better equipment and a cleaner and safer work environment. We also had another problem which is a good problem to have. The domestic power plant business turned out to be better than we expected, so just meeting the needs of our regular customers forced some postponement of new technology initiatives.”
ABB-PBS had benefited technologically from its relationship with ABB. One example was the development of a new steam turbine line. This project was a cooperative effort among ABB-PBS and two other ABB companies, one in Sweden and one in Germany. Nevertheless, technology transfer was not the most important early benefit of ABB relationship. Rather, one of the most important gains was the opportunity to benchmark the joint venture’s performance against other established western ABB companies on variables such as productivity, inventory and receivables.

1. Where does the joint venture meet the needs of both the partners? Where does it fall short?
2. Why had ABB-PBS failed to realize its technology leadership?
3. What lessons one can draw from this incident for better management of technology transfers?

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NO. 5.
Attracted by its rapid transformation from a socialist planned economy into a
market economy, economic annual growth rate of around 12 per cent, and a population in excess of 1.2 billion, Western firms over the past 10 years have favored China as a site for foreign direct investment. Most see China as an emerging economic superpower, with an economy that will be as large as that of Japan by 2000 and that of the US before 2010, if current growth projections hold true.
The Chinese government sees foreign direct investment as a primary engine of China’s economic growth. To encourage such investment, the government has offered generous tax incentives to foreign firms that invest in China, either on their own or in a joint venture with a local enterprise. These tax incentives include a two – year exemption from corporate income tax following an investment, plus a further three years during which taxes are paid at only 50 per cent of the standard tax rate. Such incentives when coupled with the promise of China’s vast internal market have made the country a prime site for investment by Western firms. However, once established in China, many Western firms find themselves struggling to comply with the complex and often obtuse nature of China’s rapidly evolving accounting system.
Accounting in China has traditionally been rooted in information gathering and compliance reporting designed to measure the government’s production and tax goals. The Chinese system was based on the old Soviet system, which had little to do with profit or accounting systems created to report financial positions or the results of foreign operations.
Although the system is changing rapidly, many problems associated with the old system still remain.
One problem for investors is a severe shortage of accountants, financial managers, and auditors in China, especially those experienced with market economy transactions and international accounting practices. As of 1995, there were only 25,000 accountants in china, far short of the hundreds of thousands that will be needed if China continues on its path towards becoming a market economy. Chinese enterprises, including equity and cooperative joint ventures with foreign firms, must be audited by Chinese accounting firms, which are regulated by the state. Traditionally, many experienced auditors have audited only state-owned enterprises, working through the local province or city authorities and the state audit bureau to report to the government entity overseeing the audited firm. In response to the shortage of accountants schooled in the principles of private sector accounting, several large international auditing firms have established joint ventures with emerging Chinese accounting and auditing firms to bridge the growing need for international accounting, tax and securities expertise.
A further problem concerns the somewhat halting evolution of China’s emerging accounting standards. Current thinking is that China won’t simply adopt the international accounting standards specified by the IASC, nor will it use the generally accepted accounting principles of any particular country as its mode. Rather, accounting standards in China are expected to evolve in a rather piecemeal fashion, with the Chinese adopting a few standards as they are studied and deemed appropriate for Chinese circumstances.
In the meantime, current Chinese accounting principles present difficult problems for Western firms. For example, the former Chinese accounting system didn’t need to accrue unrealized losses. In an economy where shortages were the norm, if a state-owned company didn’t sell its inventory right away, it could store it and use it for some other purpose later. Similarly, accounting principles assumed the state always paid its debts – eventually. Thus, Chinese enterprises don’t generally provide for lower-of-cost or market inventory adjustments or the creation of allowance for bad debts, both of which are standard practices in the West.
1. What factors have shaped the accounting system currently in use in China?
2. What problem does the accounting system, currently in sue in China, present to foreign investors in joint ventures with Chinese companies?
3. If the evolving Chinese system does not adhere to IASC standards, but instead to standards that the Chinese governments deem appropriate to China’s “Special situation”, how might this affect foreign firms with operations in China ?
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NO. 6
“Mexico Widens Anti – dumping Measure …………. Steel at the Core of US-Japan Trade Tensions …. Competitors in Other Countries Are Destroying an American Success Story … It Must Be Stopped”, scream headlines around the world.
International trade theories argue that nations should open their doors to trade. Conventional free trade wisdom says that by trading with others, a country can offer its citizens a greater volume and selection of goods at cheaper prices than it could in the absence of it. Nevertheless, truly free trade still does not exist because national governments intervene. Despite the efforts of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and smaller groups of nations, governments seem to be crying foul in the trade game now more than ever before.
We see efforts at protectionism in the rising trend in governments charging foreign producers for “dumping” their goods on world markets. Worldwide, the number of antidumping cases that were initiated stood at about 150 in 1995, 225 in 1996, 230 in 1997 , and 300 in 1998.
There is no shortage of similar examples. The Untied States charges Brazil, Japan, and Russia with dumping their products in the US market as a way out of tough economic times. The US steel industry wants the government to slap a 200 per cent tariff on certain types of steel. But car markers in the United States are not complaining, and General Motors even spoke out against the antidumping charge – as it is enjoying the benefits of law – cost steel for use in its auto product ion. Canadian steel makers followed the lead of the United States and are pushing for antidumping actions against four nations.
Emerging markets, too, are jumping into the fray. Mexico recently expanded coverage of its Automatic Import Advice System. The system requires importers (from a select list of countries) to notify Mexican officials of the amount and price of a shipment ten days prior to its expected arrival in Mexico. The ten-day notice gives domestic producers advance warning of incoming low – priced products so they can complain of dumping before the products clear customs and enter the marketplace. India is also getting onboard by setting up a new government agency to handle antidumping cases. Even Argentina, China, Indonesia, South Africa, South Korea, and Thailand are using this recently – popularized tool of protectionism.
Why is dumping on the rise in the first place? The WTO has made major inroads on the use of tariffs, slashing tem across almost every product category in recent years. But the WTO does not have the authority to punish companies, but only governments. Thus, the WTO cannot pass judgments against individual companies that are dumping products in other markets. It can only pass rulings against the government of the country that imposes an antidumping duty. But the WTO allows countries to retaliate against nations whose producers are suspected of dumping when it can be shown that : (1) the alleged offenders are significantly hurting domestic producers, and (2) the export price is lower than the cost of production or lower than the home – market price.
Supporters of antidumping tariffs claim that they prevent dumpers from undercutting the prices charged by producers in a target market and driving them out of business. Another claim in support of antidumping is that it is an excellent way of retaining some protection against potential dangers of totally free trade. Detractors of antidumping tariffs charge that once such tariffs are imposed they are rarely removed. They also claim that it costs companies and governments a great deal of time and money to file and argue their cases. It is also argued that the fear of being charged with dumping causes international competitors to keep their prices higher in a target market than would other wise be the case. This would allow domestic companies to charge higher prices and not lose market share – forcing consumers to pay more for their goods.

1. “You can’t tell consumers that the low price they are paying for a particular fax machine or automobile is somehow unfair. They’re not concerned with the profits of companies. To them, it’s just a great bargain and they want it to continue.” Do you agree with this statement? Do you think that people from different cultures would respond differently to this statement? Explain your answers.
2. As we’ve seen, the WTO cannot currently get involved in punishing individual companies for dumping – its actions can only be directed toward governments of countries. Do you think this is a wise policy ? Why or why not? Why do you think the WTO was not given the authority to charge individual companies with dumping? Explain.
3. Identify a recent antidumping case that was brought before the WTO. Locate as many articles in the press as you can that discuss the case. Identify the nations, products (s), and potential punitive measures involved. Supposing you were part of the WTO’s Dispute Settlement Body, would you vote in favor of the measures taken by the retailing nation? Why or why not?
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Marks: 80

Note: Attempt any five questions. All questions carry equal marks.

1. Explain the various components of control systems.
2. Explain the following models and highlight their usefulness in formulating business unit strategies:
(a) The BCG Model
(b) General Electric (GE) Planning Model
3. Explain the boundary conditions in the context of profit centre. Also explain the process of performance measurement of profit centers.
4. What do you understand by Investment Centres? Explain the methods used for measuring investment centre performance.
5. What do you mean by budgetary control system? Explain the process of budgetary control in an organization.
6. Describe the criteria on which the incentives of business unit managers are decided.
7. What are the various special control issues faced by Multi National Corporations?
8. What are the characteristics of a project organization? Explain how these characteristics affect the control system design of a project.
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