International Cross Culture & Diversity Management (EDL 412)-Semester IV

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International Cross Culture & Diversity Management (EDL 412)-Semester IV

Case Study

An AGFA case study

This case study looks at how AGFA, a leading player, is taking full advantage of the digital revolution. The company is using the new technology as:

• an engine for growing its business

• a means of providing its customers with better product possibilities and with greater flexibility and choice.

Agfa

Agfa is a leading name in the imaging industry. The Agfa-Gevaert Group de-velops, produces and distributes an extensive range of analogue and digital imaging systems. Agfa has divided its operations into three segments.

Agfa’s operations involve a high level of innovation. The company’s willingness and ability to work at the leading edge of technology help to make it a leader in its field. For Agfa to remain a market leader, its managers must concern themselves with the future and ask themselves:

• Where is the industry heading?

• What are our competitors likely to do next?

• Where do we go from here?

With imaging, the answers currently are:

• The industry is heading towards greater use of digital imaging.

• Our competitors will invest in research and development aimed at enhancing quality at affordable prices.

• We look to get there first, with better products to sell to customers who are prepared for using them.

This approach requires a willingness to invest heavily in new projects that maximise the benefits of new technology.

Every proposed project undergoes investment appraisal. This procedure establishes whether a particular project is worth taking forward. Managers will ask key questions about a proposal, including:

• How expensive are the initial outlay and the final total outlay likely to be?

• For how long are we likely to be spending money without any financial return?

• How long is it likely to be before we recover, from sales, all the money we have invested?

• What return can we reasonably expect from our investment in the long term?

• How big are the risks? What events over which we have little or no control could cause this project to falter or fail? How likely are they?

Risks for the imaging industry include:

• a significant rise in the cost of borrowing to finance investment

• a downturn in business activity worldwide that persuades industrial customers to postpone their own purchase of new plant and equipment

• poorer job prospects for the general public that deter private consumers from spending on the latest products.

Large scale investment

Agfa must consider these factors as it contemplates large scale investment in new digitally based technologies.

During 2000 Agfa invested around 224 million Euros (equivalent to 4% of its sales revenue) in research and development. Part of this involved working with external partners eg universities and leading research centres.

Much of the work reflected the need to move forward in:

• developing the transition from analogue to digital solutions

• meeting a wider variety of customer needs

• helping Agfa to create new market sectors and to enter them profitably.

• Digital technologies are changing the way in which people take, process and use images. New processes allow customers to work with images quickly and efficiently, without requiring extensive expertise and knowledge. Take, for example, the newspaper world. With newspapers, speed is vital and editors want the best pictures to go with the latest stories.

• Digital technology is transforming newspaper production. For example, sports photographers no longer have to dash back to the office to develop prints, wondering anxiously what they have captured. They know immediately the quality of the image they have and they can despatch it immediately too. As a result, the publisher soon has on sale a comprehensive local Saturday night ‘sports special’ carrying action photos of spectacular moments that occurred hundreds of miles away just a short time earlier.

• The new technology is also transforming photography for the general public. For example, crystal clear photos of a baby can now be available to proud, anxious grandparents thousands of miles away within a few minutes of an infant’s birth.

• Technological advance does have a downside, in that demand for new products affects sales of older ones. As a market, analogue photography has almost reached maturity. It is still

Today’s businesses and management are quite complex due to the globalization and to the fact that in a company there might be several people from several different backgrounds and variety cultures. But still, I would say that the most important thing in order to manage well is to Communicate and have the need for communicate well to each other and most importantly have an effective intercultural communication between co-workers. This is why the management today must ensure that they are understanding and being understood across cultural boundaries. As I was working for the clothing company in Finland which did business Italian company and ordered cloths from Italy there were several problems in communication and concepts.

The Intercultural management problem: When thinking about all the cultural differences mentioned above and acknowledge the situation; The Finnish Company ordered clothes from Italy in their strict deadlines, ordering dates and expectations that the goods will be delivered on time. The manager told to two of our employees to make sure that the orders are done and delivered. The employees contacted the persons in Italy made example were order and agreed on the deadlines, due dates of the payments and delivery dates. Everything the well. But when the delivery date came, no goods were delivered or even sent from Italy yet, even we in Finland already had promised the goods to be in the boutique for customers. The manager in Finland blamed the two employees for not doing their task well and contacted the people in Italy. getting The same chain of events happened often always something fast late from the deadline, phone meetings were late, and if there was a meeting organized in Italy or Finland, it didn’t go well.

Our Finnish manager wanted to go straight to Business and talk about the orders when the Italians wanted to have a dinner and take the time for get together first. Our manager explained to his employees how rude the Italians were because they came physically very close in the meetings and didn’t stick to the point, and was overwhelmed even from his employees that why the wanted to continue the meeting. All in the entire situation was chaotic and the cultural differences were too much for our Finnish manager. He had been used to do business only in Finland before and didn’t have a clue how different the business between two different countries can be. This situation kept on going because the Finnish manager didn’t want to change his habits and the Italians didn’t even know that something was wrong. When I started my job in this company the situation was very bad, and in the end, our manager quit his job. We got a new manager, and after that everything started to go well and the connections and communications between our employees in Italy and Finland were good.

The problems mentioned above are related to the problems when a person cannot adjust and adapt to the other cultures, and the same happens if a worker changes a country where to work, The cultural differences can be too much to handle which effects to the results of the work. The same happened here for the manager but in his own country working with people abroad. That the importance of intercultural training is crucial. In the article, it is also mentioned that working in a foreign country or with foreign cultures is a big challenge for any company.

Discussion:

At first, I would like to give some background information of Finland and Italian business habits in order to understand the problem. Emeritus Professor Geert Hofstede from Maastricht University has completed many studies concerning cross cross-culturalrences. His goal was to find an understanding and similarities between cultures. In order to do so, Hofstede came up with five different dimensions for collecting the relevant findings under mutual nominators. Italy and Finland are an example of cultures which are quite different in his scale. First I would like to mention as a theoretical background the two diagrams one from Finland and one from Italy and explain some important point from them.

From the above diagrams it’s revealed that Finland is a quite feminine country when Italy is a masculine country. The Individuality rate is about the same meaning that there is a strong importance for the opinion of an individual but as a matter of fact in Finland the Individuality for man and a woman is more equal and also the relationship between parent and a child or employer and employee is based on the mutual advantage, not on the hierarchy like it is more normal in Italy. From the diagram it’s easy to see the difference in Power distance. Italian culture is more High Power distant because, for example, the organization has its leaders and the members of it will follow them. The division of power is also quite centralized as well as centralized fairly. On the other hand, the core values in Finland are equality between people and responsibility. That refers to the point that Finland is Low Power Distant country. It is common to speak openly in a social context, and privileges and status are frowned upon. The difference between less and more powerful people high context. The factor in the diagram Uncertainty avoidance is higher in Italy and Lower in Finland; this might be related to the old traditions in Italy and to the fact that the Finns are more open to new opportunities than the Italians. All in all, I wanted to describe the cultural differences between these two countries and show that even in the daily life there are huge differences.

The point what I would like to rise up is the importance of intercultural training and the fact that the concept of time and space are crucial to understanding that they vary a lot between countries. Edward T. Hall is an American cross- cultural researcher and anthropologist, who examined the different cultures of the world and created the concepts of high context culture, polychromic time and meaning of space. He found that these factors varied according to culture and throughout his findings, he was also able to categories countries according to these means. In the Intercultural management problem I think the main issues were Time and Space. Especially time.

Edward T. Hall is an American cross- cultural researcher and anthropologist, who examined the different cultures of the world and created the concepts of high context culture, polychromic time and meaning of space. He found that these factors varied according to culture and throughout his findings, he was also able to categorize countries according to these means. The next theory has been gathered from Edward T. Hall’s literature “The Silent Language” and “Beyond Culture”.

Conclusion:

The Intercultural management problem which I discussed above was really common I think nowadays but also very harmful for the company, employees and managers. The management of the company suffers and also the business partners etc. In fact after discussing and having some theoretical background to the topic I would say that the main reason for the problem when thinking about the theory part Hofstedes and Halls theories for example were the misunderstanding of concepts like time, space and even business etiquette and the differences. The point that the manager didn’t have enough knowledge of managing a company with international partners was most crucial part. As a solution mentioned above in the text I would recommend Intercultural training and flexibility in cultural differences for the whole company from employees to managers. My message concerning the intercultural problem here is that nowadays in our globalizing world it is the most important factor when doing international business to be aware of the countries and cultures around you.

Question 1 : Businesses and management are quite complex due to the ____

Select one:

a. Trend

b. Economy

c. globalization

d. World war

Question 2

core values in Finland are equality between people and ____.

Select one:

a. Position

b. power

c. Time

d. responsibility

Question 3

Edward T. Hall is an American cross- cultural researcher and ___

Select one:

a. Physiologist

b. anthropologist

c. both a & b

d. Social worker

Question 4

Emeritus Professor Geert Hofstede goal was to find an understanding and _____ between cultures.

Select one:

a. Dissimilarities

b. similarities

c. both a & b

d. only a

Question 5

Finland is __Power Distant country.

Select one:

a. Low

b. High

c. both a & b

d. all of the above

Question 6

Hofstede came up with___ different dimensions for collecting the relevant findings under mutual nominators.

Select one:

a. one

b. five

c. two

d. four

Question 7

In the Intercultural management problem the main issues were Time and __

Select one:

a. Space

b. value

c. money

d. none of the above

Question 8

Italian culture is _____High Power distant

Select one:

a. less

b. more

c. equal

d. both a & b

Question 9

The factor in the diagram Uncertainty avoidance is ____ in Italy and Lower in Finland

Select one:

a. lower

b. unequal

c. higher

d. more

Question 10

theory has been gathered from Edward T. Hall’s literature “The Silent Language” and _____

Select one:

a. Beyond Culture

b. Art

c. Literature

d. none of the above

10/10

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2 Module Assesment

In summer 2000 I left Switzerland for three months with the aim to take a film course in New York. Even though I was used travelling with others, this time I went alone which gave the trip a somehow adventurous flair. I had organised myself a place to live before I left home, but didn’t know at all how it would be or look like. As I arrived at the airport I took a cab to Avenue C, in the East Village of downtown Manhattan and was somehow shocked when the cabdriver stopped in front of a totally battered door in a dark street. It looked like one of this muddy gutters in the Bronx that I had seen on television. A little bit unconfident I took my luggage and went to the door. There was no doorbell therefore I knocked. The door was opened by a Peruvian man, who turned out to be Carlos, the landlord of the house. I was welcomed warmly into the spacious living room, in which at least eight young people sat, having a small party. The house turned out to be a very warm and friendly place where many international students were renting their rooms. A middle-aged actor out of engagement was living there, too. His name was Philippe, half Swiss half British, who had been living in New York already for several years.

I swiftly adapted to that house and I started to love the East Village immediately. It is a very international part of the city, a truly cross-cultural place. Most of the inhabitants come from Puerto Rico, but also a lot of African Americans and in addition, many people with an extraordinary lifestyle, artists, musicians and actors are living there. For me, who was used to very well organised and tidy Swiss mentality, it was a totally different way of life.

In the house, we cooked together many times and it was after one of these meals when Philippe, the actor, started to bring the discussion to Switzerland. Being half Swiss he was very interested in everything that concerned the country and he was happy to have me there to talk to. At the time, the big discussion in the media about Switzerland’s behaviour in the Second World War was an ongoing issue. Ed Fagan, an American reparations lawyer, had sued the Swiss banks on behalf of Holocaust victims. The Swiss banks settled the claims outside of the court, agreeing in a payout of 1,25 billion US-Dollars for the Jewish descendants. Since New York is known for having a big Jewish community and because of the numerous reports in the US-media, the issue was an ongoing discussion in the City.

Philippe started the conversation with the focus on the dubious role of the Swiss banks. He argued that the banks were to blame for the destiny of many Jewish descendants who had to start a new life in the United States without any money. In his point of view, the banks had deliberately avoided any confrontation and had wanted to hog insurable values for themselves. Since at that time the discussion in Switzerland had already turned into an overflow, I was not very much interested in a profound conversation. However, I tried to explain my point of view and made the mistake not to admit immediately the guilt of the banks. I actually wanted to make clear that there were many other factors that led to this behaviour. Of course, Philippe just wanted to make his point clear but he actually started to blame the whole Swiss society for being very greedy for money. I felt deeply offended by that and finally committed myself to the argument. But at this point a normal discussion was not possible any more. The two of us got really angry at each other. I tried to vindicate my country like a defence lawyer standing in front of a court. At one point Philippe asked why I was feeling so offended by that discussion and at that point I stopped and went angrily into my room. Laying on my bed, I still felt very insulted and sad. But after a while I started to reconsider the issue. Actually, Philippe was right asking why I felt offended, because I couldn’t find a reason myself. In fact, I didn’t agree at all with the behaviour of the Swiss banks concerning the insurable values from the time of the Second World War. What made me angry was the fact that the whole international press was picking at Switzerland like it was the only country who ever did something wrong. At the time, Switzerland had reacted already on the international critics. The Swiss government had installed the Independent Commission of Experts to bring light into the Swiss past. But this fact hadn’t made it into the headlines of the international press.

I will describe a cross-cultural encounter in which I was an observer for almost two years. This extended “critical incident” took place in Mexico City, where I had my last job at the United Nations Environmental Programme before coming to study in Switzerland. The people involved in this long-suffered story are mainly my former boss, Mr. Griffith, (I work for him as his assistant) and colleagues from different nationalities such as a Cuban Regional Director, high officers from Chile, Panama, Uruguay, Japan, Great Britain, and of course Mexico.

Mr. Griffith came from a Caribbean-English style background and had lived in Nairobi, Kenya working at the headquarters for the same United Nations Environment Programme for more than seven years. Unexpectedly, he was appointed to accomplish a mission in Mexico City for a smaller branch office in the Latin America region without knowing a single word of Spanish, and was pulled out from his usual English way of living and thinking, and driven to a Latin American environment wholly unknown and unusual for him.

So, this cross-cultural encounter had two immediate repercussions at the personal level for Mr. Griffith but mostly at the operative and managerial level. At this last level, even though the whole United Nations system is supposed to be organized with the same rules and manuals around the world (I was aware that every local office refines the model system according to their local office logistics), it was very difficult for Mr. Griffith to understand and adapt to this local culture where the organization operates. The most critical aspect for him was the fact to understand the easy-going Latin personality and moreover the concept of time. It is also important to mention that he had two deal with different forces or mentalities such as the one from the Cuban Director, resembling a more dictatorial managerial style; then the one from the officers at his same level with a more American or Latin American way of thinking, together with a very bureaucratic administration.

Mr. Griffith’s responsibilities were mainly to develop, implement and finance environmental projects for the Latin American and Caribbean countries. But frequently, his work was blocked by this bureaucratic administration. Things were not as smooth as working directly in the headquarters. He felt committed to the countries to fulfill their demands, but he was not able anymore to assist them as he did in his former office while working with nations from other regions. The same happened with his colleagues; he would expect to have a faster input from them when asking for advice on certain shared issues. But at the same time, it was challenging for him to assimilate his sudden change of office, he was not willing to adapt to the other’s colleagues way of working, and wanted to keep the same rules and conditions defined in the organization and management of his former office.

He never felt integrated into the staff community at the social level, but he did not make an effort to become part of it, as the other international colleagues were already adapted in a Mexican environment. He kept on comparing and criticising our culture creating an uncomfortable environment not only for national but also for global staff, sometimes showing some ethnocentric characteristics.

He was not interested in building any social or professional relations, so this behavior created a hostile situation among the colleagues and had immediate repercussions in his everyday work as he did not feel the necessary support he needed from his colleagues in shared activities or projects. It was difficult for him to approach his colleagues to ask for their comments and advises.

Specifically, at the cultural level, he made the great mistake of not learning Spanish, even though Spanish lessons were paid for him, he was never interested in this local language or the Mexican culture. So he always depended on translations or interpretation for the meetings. It seemed like he did not want to be introduced or exposed to a new culture, and was afraid of this “foreignness.” In everyday life, he lost small but meaningful discussions or comments from his colleagues whenever English was not spoken.

Personal Interpretation

As it can be seen, this cross-cultural encounter does not describe a specific situation, but clearly, depicts a complex and problematic work situation due to cultural shock reasons.

According to what I saw in two years of working together with Mr. Griffith, I can say that his Latin American experience has been almost like a nightmare for him, but unfortunately, I consider that he was unable to use cultural diversity as a competitive tool for his international working experience.

Finally, I consider that in order to successfully interact with a foreign culture in the business world or as in this case with an international organization dealing with a multicultural staff; one should be aware of being critical enough to understand and analyze the similarities and differences between cultures which are hidden or difficult to visualise at first sight. Then, this knowledge could also be used to feel more comfortable by understanding the behaviors of the foreign partner, and at the same time showing respect for the host society could also create a solid basis for the beginning of effective intercultural communication.

Question 1: Case is based on Cross culture encounter which took place in __

Select one:

a. Mexico

b. America

c. Norway

d. Spain

Question 2

cross-cultural encounter does not describe a ____situation

Select one:

a. Common

b. Unique

c. specific

d. none of the above

Question 3

Ed Fagan, an American reparations lawyer, had sued the Swiss banks on behalf of ______victims.

Select one:

a. American

b. Child

c. Holocaust

d. none of the above

Question 4

Mr. Griffith came from a ____-English style background and had lived in Nairobi

Select one:

a. Caribbean

b. European

c. Russian

d. Indonesian

Question 5

Mr. Griffith’s responsibilities were mainly to develop, implement and finance environmental projects for the Latin American and___countries

Select one:

a. European

b. Caribbean

c. Only b

d. Both a & b

Question 6

New York is known for having a big ___community

Select one:

a. Jewish

b. American

c. Italian

d. Iranian

Question 7

one should be aware of being critical enough to understand and analyze the similarities and differences between ______which are hidden or difficult to visualise at first sight.

Select one:

a. Norms

b. Ethics

c. values

d. cultures

Question 8

Philippe started the conversation with the focus on the dubious role of the _____

Select one:

a. American Government

b. Swiss banks

c. Both a & b

d. all of the above

Question 9

Swiss banks concerning the _____values from the time of the Second World War.

Select one:

a. Assurable

b. core

c. national

d. Insurable

Question 10

The Swiss government had installed the Independent___ of Experts to bring light into the Swiss past

Select one:

a. Board

b. Panel

c. Both a & b

d. Commission

10/10

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3rd Module Assessment

Introduction

The topic treated in this paper came to my mind talking with my friend Ciro. He is a Swiss event manager working for an important international hotel chain. After working in Switzerland for over ten years with great success, his company moved him to Egypt, as responsible for events in their resort on the red sea. No specific instruction was given to him regarding how to manage the intercultural differences he would necessarily encounter. And indeed he did. His new boss was Swiss, but all of his subordinates and most of his peers, Egyptians.

One of the first things that struck him in his new work environment was how his Egyptian peers treated their subordinates. Orders were given in a very unfriendly manner, and if the work was not completed in an adequate way they would shout and threaten the neglectful.

Ciro was well known in Switzerland for being a very gentle and polite boss, his subordinates most appreciated his relational qualities, the way he treated them as equals and how he always took into consideration their ideas and remarks.

He talked about his perplexities with his Swiss ethnocentric boss, who simply replied: “Egyptians are lazy if you don’t treat them this way they will not work”. Unhappy with this answer, Ciro decided to try out his usual egalitarian management style in Egypt. He then held his first meeting with his direct reports and asked them to express the ideas they had about possible events to organise in the next future, but everybody kept silent. When he finally came up with a banal idea, everybody supported it without further discussion. This meeting model repeated itself, again and again, nobody ever seems to have initiative.

Despite his discouragement, Ciro had friendly manners with his subordinates and once he dispatched the work he didn’t continuously check it up, convinced that personal responsibility would be sufficient.

He soon realised that work wasn’t completed, that his friendly manners were interpreted as weakness and that he was the one expected to have ideas, as he was the boss. Ciro finally understood the importance and the extent of cultural differences existing between Egypt and Switzerland.

Ciro’s experience is not an isolated case, and lack of awareness of cultural differences have caused serious issues when not addressed correctly. Malcolm Gladwell, in his book “Outliers: The Story of Success”. (2008) gives an intercultural interpretation of the repeated crashes of Korean Air in the 1990s. Boeing and Airbus design aeroplanes where pilots and co-pilots are meant to act as equals in the cabin, but Korean culture doesn’t permit co-pilots to correct errors done by hierarchically superior pilots, and if an irreverent co-pilot dared criticise a pilot, he probably wouldn’t be heard. According to Malcolm Gladwell, cultural difference in Korean culture is at the origin of the repeated air crashes and losses of hundreds of lives. Korean Air finally figured out the nature of their problem and fixed it.

On the other hand, in the academic field, there is a great deal of research done on intercultural management and debates are intense. Geert Hofstede has been one of the most influential researchers in this field. In the early 1980’s he conducted a study on how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. His study was first conducted in IBM covering 70 countries. Subsequent researchers have covered other multinational firms and countries.

Hofstede (1980) developed a model that identifies four primary dimensions to assist in differentiating cultures: power distance, individualism/collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/femininity. According to Hofstede (1991), culture refers to the collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another. Each dimension is based on a continuum, so those actual situations are not just polarised between high and low but may be anywhere in between.

Actually, Hofstede’s dimensions validate our examples. Power distance is defined as “the extent to which the less powerful members of organisations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This represents inequality but defined from below, not from above. It suggests that a society’s level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders.”(Hofstede, 1980). Ciro comes from Switzerland, where the power distance indicator is very low, 34, while Egypt stands at the other end of the rule, scoring 80. This difference in power distance is a possible and plausible explanation of the difficulties encountered by Ciro in his new job. South Korea’s power distance indicator stands in between, rating 60 but it comes with a very high uncertainty avoidance index: 85, indicating the society’s low level of tolerance for uncertainty. When these two dimensions are combined, it creates a situation where leaders have virtually ultimate power and authority, and the rules, laws and regulations developed by those in power reinforce their own leadership and control. It is, therefore, understandable that the situation in the cockpit between pilot and co-pilot was not at all egalitarian, as the designer of the aeroplanes supposed it was.

Numerous subsequent studies have used one or more of Hofstede’s dimensions to measure cultural distance and other researchers such as Cameron & Quinn (1983) or Trompenaars (1993) have developed different models. More recently the extensive GLOBE study (2004) determined how leadership values are culturally contingent.

Another influential researcher in intercultural management is Nancy Adler (1991). She asks whether organisational culture can moderate or even erase the influence of national culture. Her researches demonstrate that organisational culture, on the contrary, magnifies national cultures, making the latter’s impact on work behaviours more pronounced. Adler’s observations support the conclusion that national culture outweighs organisational culture.

All these studies tend to demonstrate that in international business, relations between colleges, with competitors and with clients are highly dependent on cultural values.

Nevertheless, despite the effects of cross-cultural differences on international business are widely acknowledged, international firms continue to experience costly failures when venturing overseas. Indeed, according to academic and non-academic literature, companies are struggling to succeed in the global multicultural environment. A high number of failures have been documented in areas such as international joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions (Rottig, 2007; Arikan, 2004) and expatriate assignments (Hill, 2001; Storti, 2001;). In many cases, a lack of intercultural competence appears to be the prime cause of the failure.

Discussion

Keiretsu News (2006) reports that “There is a startling high failure rate for newly acquired or merged businesses. Within 18 months of closing, 80% of large cap, 50% of small cap, and 80% of micro cap transactions fail to meet stakeholder objectives. Separately, Mergerstat.com spent two years tracking results from the 8,224 domestic transactions conducted in 2001. The study estimates that a staggering $560 billion of business value was destroyed due to M&A failure.”. Doug MacDonald (2005) points out that failures in mergers and acquisitions and joint ventures rate somewhere between 40 and 80%.

Daniel Rotting conducted a study aimed to identify key difficulties that may cause such high failure rates of cross-border mergers and acquisitions, and developed a typology of strategies to facilitate the management of these problems His study indicates that cultural distance alone cannot define international acquisition performance. He argues that the consequences of culture on international acquisition performance are of a more complex nature and that “it is not cultural distance per se, but the ineffective management of cultural differences that may be the main reason for the high failure rates of international acquisitions.” (Rotting, 2007, p2.).

Apud, Lenartowicz and Johnson (2003) conducted a three-stage study to establish the extent of academic research in cross-cultural issues in international business; the degree to which top business schools incorporate these issues in undergraduate and graduate business programs; and the awareness of and responsiveness to these issues by practitioners. They found a low level of intercultural competence among business practitioners and consultants and an apparent failure in the dissemination of existing intercultural knowledge in business schools and by corporate in-house and external trainers.

In addition, until a few years ago it was widely acknowledged that intercultural competence was necessary for expatriates leaving their homeland and facing new situations abroad. Recent articles in the business literature suggest that in today’s hypercompetitive global marketplace intercultural competence should be spread out to all levels of the organisations. Martha Frase’s puts it in these words: “Increasingly, companies will find that to grow, they will have to expand into international markets and be able to function effectively in cultures that may be little-known to them. Such companies will have to elevate their familiarity with other customs and languages, and their newfound cross-cultural awareness will have to permeate not only corporate ranks but all the levels below down to the employees who carry on the enterprise day after day, dealing with counterparts in other countries without even visiting those places.” (Frase, M., 2007)

From current academic and non-academic literature, it is clear that many multinational firms fail in their overseas assignments due to intercultural communication problems: academic and business authors have identified a lack of intercultural competence as a key factor in the failure of international business. This paper intends to identify possible solutions to improve intercultural competencies in international business, but in order to pursue, we first need to clarify the concepts of culture and intercultural competence.

Culture is often seen as a shared meaning system. Researchers such as Hofstede and Trompenaars have built their models on a classic concept of culture, where culture is seen as homogeneous inside a nation and stable. As pointed out by Søderberg and Holden (2002), “culture is seen as something that members of a community (e.g. an organisation or a nation) “have” or “belong to”. In such a picture, cultural differences are inevitably seen as sources of conflict, problems and misunderstandings.

This limited view of individuals belonging preeminently to a given culture, where people are classified according to a single criterion and thus have a single dimension, is nevertheless criticised by numerous researchers in the intercultural communication field. Amartya Sen (2006), for instance, proposes a more complete model, where individuals belong simultaneously to numerous groups, such as « Woman », « vegetarian », « lawyer », « lover of jazz » and « heterosexual ». Identity is multidimensional and cannot be reduced to a single aspect. We are different in different ways and we are capable of interacting in a variety of ways. For Amartya Sen, our identity is not defined by destiny, given by birth, nationality or religion. On the contrary, each person is free to compose his own identity according to multiple dimensions. Belonging to a community may determine an essential part of this identity, but it may not define ultimately a person.

Furthermore, nations are not as stable and totally separated one from another as Hofstede’s model supposes. Important internal dynamics occur, and the official culture is always in competition with alternative cultures present in the country or organisation. The competition with alternative cultures eventually alters the official culture which is therefore in constant evolution. The presence of diversity is the seed for future change, and a rigid view of culture does not correspond to reality. Besides, the notion of multicultural nations is widely amplified in our fast globalising world.

In this context, culture is not only a source of misunderstanding and conflict, but a source of competitive advantage, and intercultural competencies, are not confined to enhancing intercultural or cross-cultural awareness and negotiation skills but they are the necessary skills

to “facilitate and direct synergistic interaction and learning at interfaces, where knowledge, values and experience are transferred into multicultural domains of implementation” (Søderberg and Holden, 2002, p113).

With these concepts in mind, let us now try to identify possible solutions to the lack of effective intercultural competence in an increasingly interdependent and culturally diverse business world. Many articles indicate training as the main area of improvement, but while training is based on outdated concepts of culture, its efficiency is necessarily limited.

Apud, Lenartowicz and Johnson (2003), give an alternative explanation: failure can be ascribed to an ethnocentric perspective. Ethnocentrism affects intercultural competence, such that strong ethnocentrism inhibits effective intercultural communication. For this, they argue, “there is no quick fix available. No amount of individual training will get managers beyond the awareness and understanding stages if there is an organisational culture that fails to promote the merits of developing global expertise.”

Lowe, Moore, and Carr (2007) go further, according to them, “all knowledge contributions are captive of one privileged view, tolerant of a second marginalised view and denigrative or ignorant of a third view. In other words, all knowledge is captive of blind prejudices.”

The solution proposed in this paper includes learning of intercultural competence, avoids single- paradigm myopia and, if well managed, can be a strategic resource for success. This solution was not only inspired by current academic and business literature, but also by the initial example of Ciro, our Swiss manager in Egypt. After a few months of frustrating work, Ciro finally decided to gradually modify the structure of his group. As people left or were transferred to other units of the hotel, he hired people to form totally different backgrounds also considering the diversity of the clientele. Besides, he paid attention to gender, academic backgrounds and age brackets, ending up with a highly diverse team. At the beginning, managing this team resulted difficult because misunderstandings and discussions were frequent, but after a year the group had created its own norms and values, every individual was accepted and appreciated as a positive feature of the team. Discussions were always frequent, but with time they became more and more constructive. The team ended up being very creative and successful.

We argue in this paper that the most effective solution for building and spreading intercultural competence is the creation of multicultural project teams at all levels of organisations.

Multicultural teams provide the highest learning potential for intercultural competence. Cooperation and daily work in such teams create tacit knowledge. Diverse teams have intrinsic multiple views and as problems must be discussed until a solution is found, this forces to consider the existence of differences in mentalities and to build consensus. Intercultural learning does not consist in changing one’s own culture, but in understanding that other ways of seeing are also valid and that for effective interaction, a compromise needs to be found.

Anne Bartel-Radic (2006) investigated under what conditions people develop intercultural competencies in a business context. Her findings confirm the strong link between intercultural interaction in a global team and the acquisition of Intercultural competence, while interaction with foreign customers, for instance, does not create intercultural competence. Anne Bartel- Radic explains her results: “simply meeting people from other cultures is far from being a sufficient condition for the acquisition of intercultural competence. The acquisition of intercultural competence is encouraged by positive emotion and the desire to learn. Critical reflection on one’s own culture is also necessary, which means a profound change in mindsets occurs.” In global teams, interaction takes place in a common context, among equal team members, over a long period of time, and it is unplanned. People are forced to open their eyes, to see, to understand that the others exist and that they have competencies. Values eventually change, moving toward elements of intercultural competence, such as tolerance and an acceptance of difference.

Søderberg and Holden (2002) have similar findings, asserting that: “The key engine of learning is the multicultural team, out of whose diversity comes an eclectic set of perspectives, a set of interchangeable lenses.”

Multicultural teams, because of the different perspectives they contain and broader cognitive frame, are also better prepared for problem-solving compared to homogenous groups (Hong, L.& Page, S.E., 2002). For the same reasons, highly diverse teams possess increased creativity and flexibility.

Other researchers have tried to find a direct correlation between team heterogeneity and performance, but the relation seems to be more complicated. Earley and Mosakowski (2000) studied the effects of heterogeneity in trans-national teams through a qualitative field study. The results demonstrate that highly heterogeneous teams (where no clear sub-identities exist) are outperformed in the short term by more homogenous groups but on the long run, the high heterogeneous groups which are able to create a third culture outperform all the others. Thereby, there are two supplementary factors that play an important role: time and the capacity to create a third culture.

A common understanding is constructed over time through interaction, which makes for the group a “community of interpretation”. The third culture or hybrid team culture “consists of an emergent and simplified set of rules and actions, work capability expectations, and member perceptions that individuals within a team develop, share, and enact after mutual interactions.”(Earley and Mosakowski, 2000) This emergent shared culture offers a common sense of identity and facilitates individual and team performance, communication and learning. For this third culture to emerge, the team must have very clear goals and objectives, and these must be shared by all members of the group.

As we have seen, high diversity in business teams presents interesting advantages, but let us analyse the drawbacks of such teams. A common saying states that “too many cooks spoil the broth”, what is the truth in this saying?

Heterogeneous groups certainly are more difficult to manage that homogeneous groups, at least initially. Even language can become an issue, and understanding each other might not always be immediate. Furthermore many basic concepts, such as time or holding a meeting, will need to be clarified, while within a homogeneous group these concepts would be implicit. Roles and responsibilities need to be extremely clear because of possible different interpretations. As Marie-Therèse Claes (2009) noted, Dr. Carol Kovach researches demonstrate that cross-cultural groups represent the most effective groups, but at the same time, they also represent the less effective ones. Diversity can cause lack of cohesion, mistrust and miscommunication. Sub-groups can appear in a heterogeneous group, compromising the team’s identity and in multicultural groups conflict appears to be a logical outcome.

This fault line can eventually be turned into positive. A conflict is a particular form of interaction including destructuration and restructuration and plays an important role in gaining awareness. In this sense, conflict, going with positive conflict management, is seen as valuable and constructive.

Conclusion

Although multicultural teams are more complex to manage than homogeneous teams, they present real advantages for the acquisition of intercultural competencies. Diversity, if correctly managed, appears to be a valuable resource to face our globalised and hypercompetitive business world, and our multicultural societies turn up to be an unsuspected reservoir of talents.

Managing diversity efficiently implies the emergence of a third culture which ultimately defines the team identity and helps to manage the process. Investing in the management of multicultural teams is worthwhile. It will give multinational companies a strategic and competitive advantage, and an excellent return on investment.

Question 1: A _____ is a particular form of interaction including destructuration and restructuration and plays an important role in gaining awareness.

Select one:

a. Ressolution

b. Structure

c. Both a & b

d. conflict

Question 2

Cooperation and daily work in Multi cultural teams create _____knowledge.

Select one:

a. Deep

b. tacit

c. Skilled

d. Sound

Question 3

Diverse teams have____multiple views and as problems must be discussed until a solution is found

Select one:

a. Extrinsic

b. intrinsic

c. Both a & b

d. none of the above

Question 4

Highly diverse teams possess increased creativity and _____

Select one:

a. flexibility

b. Innovation

c. Adaptability

d. Uniqueness

Question 5

multicultural teams are more complex to manage than ____ teams.

Select one:

a. homogeneous

b. Hetreogeneous

c. Both a & b

d. all of the above

Question 6

shared culture offers a common sense of identity and facilitates individual and team performance, and _____learning.

Select one:

a. Networking

b. communication

c. Technology

d. Machine

Question 7

The acquisition of___ competence is encouraged by positive emotion and the desire to learn.

Select one:

a. organizational

b. intercultural

c. cultural

d. both a & c

Question 8

The key engine of learning is the multicultural team, out of whose diversity comes an ___of perspectives, a set of interchangeable lenses

Select one:

a. bunch

b. umbrella

c. skill

d. eclectic set

Question 9

____on one’s own culture is also necessary, which means a profound change in mindsets occurs.

Select one:

a. Critical reflection

b. Reflection

c. Flexibility

d. Adaptability

Question 10

_____researches demonstrate that cross-cultural groups represent the most effective groups

Select one:

a. Drucker

b. Fayol

c. Dr. Carol Kovach

d. Dr.Keith

10/10

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4th Module Assessment

It present the inter-religious conflict related to the Temple Mountain in Jerusalem, involving Jews and Muslim. Two questions will be at stake: the sovereignty on the place, and the right of archaeological digging.

The origin or the reasons of the conflict are bounded with the name that Muslim and Jews give to that place. The Temple Mount is the Hebrew name and indicates the place where the holy Temple of Jerusalem was placed, before its disruption in 70a.C. According to Jewish the Messiah will come back and re-build the temple. No Jewish can enter the Temple Mount for two precise reasons:

(1) to enter the place of the Temple a Jewish must make a sacrifice first, but since the Temple has been destroyed and the priests class does not exist anymore (priests gave services only in the Temple of Jerusalem, the only Jewish temple), a Jewish cannot be purified and enter the area;

(2) while walking on the Temple Mount could happen that a Jewish step on the place where once there was the “Saint of Saints” room, the holiest place of the Temple where is present the Spirit of God. Stepping on it is a terrible sin. For Jewish that is the place of the Temple and the fact that nowadays there are to Mosques is only temporary.

The Name of the Place according to Muslims: the Noble Enclosure In Arab the name of the same place can be translated as the Noble Enclosure (il Nobile Recinto), and it means the enclosure containing the two mosques: Al aqsa and the Dome of the Rock (la Cupola della Roccia). For Muslims, the place is holy because Mahomet has done a night trip from Mecca to Jerusalem and according to a non Koraninc text rose to the sky and talk to angels.

For the Waaqf, the board for the administration and the custody of Islamic holy places, that place is the mount of the Mosques, furthermore, the Waaqf claims that the Jewish Temple was NOT situated there and that the Noble Enclosure is a holy place only for Muslim.

Archaeology as an Ideological Tool

These standpoints bring to continuous inter-religious tensions. Archaeology has a big role in this difficult situation. In fact, the first question arising is “What is there, under the ground?” Before starting exposing the interconnected situation of the archaeological sites in the area, it has to clarify that in Israel and in Palestine archaeology is used as an ideological tool, that is whoever digs, he/she digs to find its own evidence and to cancel the evidence of the opposite part.

Now, let us try to tackle the conflict from an archaeological point of view. Most of the archaeologists’ community assumes that that is the actual place of the Temple; however, the topography of the Ancient Jerusalem is not completely clear. The argument defended by archaeologists is that the Mount is the most plausible place for the Temple. However, to have the certainty of this the only way would be to dig and discover the ruin of the Temple.

But carry on an archaeological project is impossible because no one has the right to do it and it would cause a re-exacerbation of the Israeli- Palestinian conflict. To complicate the situation, the area of the Mount is part of Israel, but it was conquered during the war of the 6 days, therefore officially is an “occupied territory”. Therefore its statute is not defined. The block is a Jewish block, however on the mount, there is Palestinian police, people (not Muslims) can enter the Mount but not the Mosques. Although Israel retains formal sovereignty over the Temple Mount, the site is governed by an Islamic trust that allows non-Muslims to visit the compound during limited hours and prohibits Jewish or Christian worshipers from reading prayers aloud.

The international community decided that no one has the right to dig in the area, nor the Palestinian or the Israeli. However, no one respects this decision and everyone digs in secret.

An Explosive Debate

To understand the explosiveness of the situation let us think to the last straw that causes the second intifada in 2000. On September 28th, 2000 Sharon “had a walk” with 1000 policemen on the Mount. In those days there was the rumour that Muslims were digging in secret on the Mount. The Sharon’s walk had a specific meaning: stop digging because we are the owners of this land. This was the start of the second intifada.

The problem of archaeological digging is now exacerbating once more. Israeli dug already along the perimeter of the Mount there is an archaeological site around the Mount. Now a new catwalk has to be built, and the Muslims accuse the Jewish to be digging under the Mount. The tragedy is that each one when digging throws away everything belonging to the other culture.

The proposal of the Vatican

In this difficult situation, the Vatican suggested a proposal to solve the conflict, proposal that was accepted by the entire international community. The proposal suggested considering Jerusalem as an extraterritorial zone, to be ruled by the UN. According to this proposal, the archaeological work should have been carried on by a third party.

Both Israeli and Palestinian did not accept the proposal: the value at stake is the sovereignty on the area, more than the willingness of knowing what actually lay under the ground. It is at this point that the religious discourse overlaps with the political one. However, I will not try here to divide the two, since, as we have been told throughout all the master curriculum, splitting politics from religion is a characteristic of the Western culture, and it is an attitude not shared in many parts of the world, and certainly it is not shared by the Islam thought. The issue is even more complicated since the power to decide about the Mosques is not a right of the Palestinian but of Islam in general, therefore Palestinian on the particular case of holy places do not have the power of negotiating.

In regard to the state of Israel, that is a laic state, it can be said that it is a laic state of Jewish, and the Jewish identity is grounded on religion.

As I said, the proposal was not accepted by the parties and, without a previous agreement between the parties, UN blue helmets cannot be sent in a country.

Question 1: Argument defended by archaeologists is that the Mount is the most ___place for the Temple

Select one:

a. Holy

b. Pure

c. plausible

d. Boyh a & c

Question 2

Israeli dug already along the perimeter of the Mount there is an___ site around the Mount

Select one:

a. Old

b. beautiful

c. archaeological

d. New

Question 3

Noble Enclosure In Arab means the enclosure containing the two mosques: Al aqsa and the ____of the Rock

Select one:

a. Square

b. Rectangle

c. Dome

d. Both a & b

Question 4

On September 28th, 2000 Sharon ___ with 1000 policemen on the Mount.

Select one:

a. had a walk

b. Interacted

c. Walked

d. Both b & c

Question 5

Splitting politics from ____is a characteristic of the Western culture

Select one:

a. Culture

b. Caste

c. nationality

d. religion

Question 6

The Sharon’s walk had a specific meaning ____

Select one:

a. Stop

b. stop digging

c. Prayer

d. Almighty

Question 7

The Temple Mount is the ___name

Select one:

a. Saint

b. Hebrew

c. Both a & b

d. none of the above

Question 8

The tragedy is that each one when digging throws away everything belonging to the ____culture.

Select one:

a. other

b. Different

c. Unique

d. all of the above

Question 9

The value at stake is the___ on the area,

Select one:

a. sovereignty

b. Holy

c. New

d. Culture

Question 10

____room, the holiest place of the Temple

Select one:

a. Saint

b. Holy

c. Pure

d. Saint of Saints

10/10

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5th Module Assessment

INTER-RELIGIOUS CONFLICT

The fact that it became possible for women to become a priest was one of the biggest changes in Lutheran church for the last few decades. Nowadays there is all the time more and more parishes are accepting women as priests, but in fact, there are many problems still. In Finland, women were accepted in the year 1996, and at the moment an average of 27% of the priests are women. Even this issue has formally been accepted; it is still a topic of argumentation.

Twenty-one years after the Lutheran Church of Finland allowed women to become pastors or priests, a small but vocal group of male clergy remained opposed to their ordination, embarrassing the Church as it tries to halt declining membership.

The problem is not anymore should a woman be a priest, the problem is what we can do about the people who are against women as a priest? And what to do with the priest who does not want to work with the woman priests? Also in the media, this has been an issue, and for example, some men working as a priest have been fired for not working with a woman priest. The issue has gone so far that one priest who was a man, decided to change his gender in Eastern-Finland and got fired after returning to work as a woman. Additionally, several female pastors also filed police complaints about discrimination.

The problem seems small, but in fact, because the Scandinavian, and especially the Finnish culture is so equal the gap between church´s opinion and the way culture sees the situation is huge. There have even been people who have decided to leave the church because a woman was a priest, but still, for them, it is normal to have a woman as a president. This issue is sensitive, and inside of the religion, it has raised up a lot of problems.

When thinking about the near future, Lutheran Church will have problems, because, for the last year’s students who have graduated from being a priest, half of them have been women. So the inter-religious conflict continues should the Lutheran church loose people from the parish because some women want to be priests or should they start campaigns to support women a priest. According to the association “The Free Thinkers,” who have created a website in which people withdraw from the Church, every time the debate on women pastors comes up in the media the number of withdrawals increase. Some 100 people a day have withdrawn their church membership in recent weeks.

There is a long in equality for the Lutheran church in Scandinavia because the level of the normal equality is so high. The value positions at stake are that the church might lose members, the culture and the church will disagree and create a big conflict between opinions, and maybe for the universities to stop educating so many women to be a priest because the church might not be able to give them work. Because it has already happened that people leave their parish and change to another where there is a man priest.

MEDIA AND CHURCH

Because there is a huge gap between the ideologies of the church and the normal culture, there are nowadays groups of women priests, and they are very intensive and even aggressive sometimes. They want to keep alive the ideology that woman is not meant to be a leader, and this is again the topic what the normal society does not understand. It was expected that when time goes by, the new generation will accept the women priests and the problem will disappear, but it ever happened. The groups which do not accept women priests are active and alive still after 20 years.

Media has raised up so much the issue of women priests that it seems now that Media has increased the number of the people who are against and Media has made it easier for these people to meet and create groups. Even nowadays the churches and parishes need publicity, the publicity which they have gotten has made the situation worse. To be able to talk about this issue in media, the church has to play with the rules of media. And the Lutheran church hasn’t been able to express themselves, and meanwhile, in the media, the people against women priest have raised up discussions to get more people to their side.

SOLVING THE INTER-RELIGIOUS CONFLICT

The problem is hard to solve because most of the people living in Finland, for example, are used to equality and support even the president to be a woman. The problem is more related to the case that people who do not accept women priest do not take it because of the Bible, and this is an issue which is hard to change, their beliefs. In the case, Media would start promoting women priests and show that they do their job as well as the men it might get better. Moreover, the Media should stop interviewing the people against women priests and start supporting the women priests in order the Finnish culture and church to co-exist. Solving these problems and issues might take even a decade, but it is possible with the help of Media and for the young generations to be as equal in their religion as they are in their daily culture.

CONCLUSION

A century ago, Finland became the world’s first state to grant women full voting rights. It is one of the most gender-equal countries in the world. Finland has a woman as a president and also the world’s most female-dominated cabinet. Still, the inter-religious conflict is related to women working as a priest and pastor. The problem seems ridiculous but is in fact complicated.

All in all my opinion to solve this issue is for everyone in the Lutheran church to remember that we all have the option to choose our opinions and religions, but we have to respect the fact that Scandinavia and Finland are equal countries and our culture accepts women as priests. It is natural that everyone does not agree. If the problem will not solve shortly, maybe it would be a good idea to start establishing parishes with women priests only and other parishes with men as priests. But again this would fight with our culture of equality.

Question 1: Finland and the whole Scandinavia are extremely equal countries towards __

Select one:

a. men

b. women

c. Both a & b

d. none of the above

Question 2

Finland became the world’s first state to grant women __

Select one:

a. full voting rights

b. Voting Rights

c. half voting rights

d. Both b & c

Question 3

Finland has the world’s most ___ cabinet

Select one:

a. male dominated

b. Gender equal

c. Biased

d. female-dominated

Question 4

Groups which do not accept women priests are active and alive still after __

Select one:

a. 20 years

b. 23Years

c. 25 Years

d. 19 years

Question 5

Huge gap between the _____of the church and the normal culture

Select one:

a. Culture

b. Norms

c. Ideologies

d. Beliefs

Question 6

Inter-religious conflict is about women working in the profession of a _____

Select one:

a. Saint

b. priest

c. Both a & b

d. Only b

Question 7

The issue has gone so far that one priest who was a man, decided to change his gender in ___

Select one:

a. Eastern-Finland

b. Western-Finland

c. Northern Finland

d. Southern-Finland

Question 8

The value positions at stake are that the church might lose members the culture and the church will disagree and create a big conflict between ____

Select one:

a. perception

b. thoughts

c. opinions

d. beliefs

Question 9

women to become a priest was one of the____ in Lutheran church for the last few decades

Select one:

a. Change

b. Drastic Change

c. biggest changes

d. Challenge

Question 10

______who have created a website in which people withdraw from the Church, every time the debate on women pastors comes up in the media the number of withdrawals increase

Select one:

a. Media

b. Advertisement agencies

c. both a & b

d. The Free Thinkers

10/10

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Assignment 2

This is about a conflict which has been going on in Finland and also in Sweden. This inter-religious conflict is about women working in the profession of a priest. The Lutheran church in Scandinavia has had a conflict which got quite large in the past few years. Finland and the whole Scandinavia are extremely equal countries towards women, and the problem related to that because the church couldn’t agree on the same level than the culture of the countries. This became a conflict because the culture is so equal, but the church is not able to stay in the same level of equality. The reason I chose this topic, is because it’s quite resent conflict and also it is related to culture. Of course, there are much worse inter-religious conflicts around the world, but as Scandinavia is really peaceful, this is an inter-religious problem which we have had in the near future.

On March 17th, 2008 Switzerland’s Elektrizitätsgesellschaft Laufenburg EGL signed a 25- year contract with the state-owned National Iranian Gas Export Company NIGEC for the delivery of 5,5 billion cubic meters of gas per year. Joachim Conrad, the member of the executive board within EGL named the deal a milestone for the natural gas business of the company. As he declared in a media release: “Natural gas from Iran is necessary to the opening of a fourth gas transportation corridor to Europe”1. The signing of the contract took place in presence of representatives of the two governments, Iranian Prime Minister Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, foreign minister Manuchehr Mottaki and Swiss foreign minister Micheline Calmy-Rey. International newspapers reported on the huge deal worth between $28 billion and $42 billion2. Iran State Television showed the meeting between Ahmadinejad and Calmy-Rey, both laughing, her wearing a Muslim veil. The contract had required a long preparation time for EGL. Early in the stage, the company asked for help from the Swiss government to accompany the negotiations.

The successful deal didn’t stay untouched for long. On the same day as international newspapers reported on the happenings, the US-department for foreign affairs made an intervention. It questioned if the deal didn’t possibly violate the UN Security Council resolutions over the Iranian uranium-enrichment program. One day later, Jewish organisations followed. As Jerusalem Post titled: “Swiss selling principles for Iranian gas”. Israeli administration officials called the business deal an “unfriendly” act towards Israel. “Iran assists extremist organisations, tramples human rights and it denies Israel its right to exist”, Israel’s Rafi Barak, director-general in charge of Israel’s Western European department, said in a meeting with Swiss ambassador Walter Haffner. Shortly after, the World Jewish Congress placed its critic as well and called the deal a “propagandistic triumph for the mullahs”. Micheline Calmy-Rey laughing and wearing a veil was interpreted as a sign of taking sides. Only two days after the contract was signed it looked like it was becoming already unstable. The US claimed the contract to examine the content according to the UN-sanctions.

In Switzerland, too, the case met with severe criticism. The Swiss conservative party SVP even placed an ad in newspapers showing the socialist politician Calmy-Rey wearing the veil, sitting in a chair under the picture of Ayatollah Khomeini, a photograph that was taken during the meeting of the two governments in Teheran. The latest accusation comes from the US-Jewish organisation Anti-Defamation League ADL. An ad that was placed in several international newspapers accuses Switzerland of supporting and financing terrorism.

In the wake of these large international critics, the gas deal, which was so carefully prepared and which is highly important for Europe’s energy supply is put in danger.

The Company

EGL is a European energy trading company, member of the Swiss AXPO Group. It trades in electricity, natural gas and energy-related financial products. Through its subsidiaries, the company is present in major European markets. Besides its trading activities, EGL holds interests in Swiss power plants and owns a gas-fired combined-cycle power plant in Italy. The gas division is relatively new for the company. It started only in 2003 to implement natural gas activities as an additional business field. Increasing demand for natural gas throughout Europe has led to this decision.

The Gas deal with Iran is not a single project within this region. EGL is the developer of the Trans Adriatic Pipeline, also known as TAP. This project consists of the building of a enormous pipeline from the Caspian and the Middle East into Western Europe. To realise this gigantic project EGL has established an equally owned joint venture with Norwegian StatoilHydro to develop, build and operate the TAP. Next to gas from Russia, the North Sea and Northern Africa TAP will open a fourth transportation corridor for gas trading. It is supposed to diversify natural Europe’s gas supply and equally minimise dependence from Russia. Many European countries will benefit from the pipeline and therefore the project is co-financed by the European Union.

Hence, the gas deal with Iran is just a first important step to guarantee gas resources for Europe. According to EGL, negotiations for the deal took a long time. Early in the stage, the Swiss government was involved since the Iranian partners belong to a state-owned company. Connections had to be built and since Switzerland’s government already had the contacts to Iranian administration circles it was only consequential, to involve high-rank Swiss officials.

Question 1: EGL has established an equally owned joint venture with ___to develop, build and operate the TAP.

Select one:

a. America

b. Norwegian StatoilHydro

c. Seilt

d. Sessro

Question 2

EGL holds interests in Swiss power plants and owns a gas-fired combined-cycle power plant in __

Select one:

a. Paris

b. Italy

c. Rome

d. UK

Question 3

EGL is a European energy trading company, member of the Swiss ____Group

Select one:

a. APXO

b. PXAO

c. AXPO

d. OPXA

Question 4

Israeli administration officials called the business deal an _____ act towards Israel

Select one:

a. Friendly

b. Unknown

c. Both a & b

d. unfriendly

Question 5

Joachim Conrad, the member of the executive board within EGL named the deal a milestone for the__ business

Select one:

a. natural gas

b. NIYH

c. CGEA

d. GINS

Question 6

Natural gas from Iran is necessary to the opening of a___ gas transportation corridor to Europe

Select one:

a. Second

b. fourth

c. First

d. Third

Question 7

The signing of the contract took place in presence of representatives of the ____governments, Iranian Prime Minister Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, foreign minister Manuchehr Mottaki and Swiss foreign minister Micheline Calmy-Rey.

Select one:

a. Three

b. One

c. Four

d. two

Question 8

The US claimed the contract to examine the content according to the_____ -sanctions.

Select one:

a. UK

b. Europe

c. UN

d. Asia

Question 9

witzerland’s Elektrizitätsgesellschaft Laufenburg EGL signed a 25- year contract with the state-owned National Iranian Gas Export Company __

Select one:

a. NIGEC

b. NIYH

c. CGEA

d. GINS

Question 10

__director-general in charge of Israel’s Western European department

Select one:

a. Israel’s Rafi Barak

b. Rafi Muhammod

c. barak Ismail

d. Israil

10/10

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Global Business Operation (EDL 413)-Semester IV

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Global Business Operation (EDL 413)-Semester IV

1st Module Assessment

Case Study

A Cadbury Schweppes Case

Why did Cadbury Schweppes choose Poland as its point of entry into the Central and Eastern European confectionery markets? Because there was a number of significant developments taking place there.

The Central and Eastern European countries can be divided into two groups: those which fell originally within the Soviet Union, and others.The key difference is that the countries within the latter group only had communist regimes for 45 years and free enterprise still existed to some degree.

The four most advanced countries within this group were Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, of which Poland had the largest population and percentage of private sector business, as well as a strong consumer market. It also had good prospects for investment, offered a skilled labour force and faced neither ethnic strife nor border disputes.

Having developed a stable parliamentary democracy and signed an association agreement with the European Union, Poland recognised that to shed its former communist image and face market forces with a proactive, commercial approach would require major changes in its culture and attitude. One way in which it could do this was to encourage development in Poland by its European partners, and Poland already had a good relationship with the UK, which has a Polish community of some 150,000.

These rapidly changing political, economic and social factors were key influences in Cadbury Schweppes’decision to enter Poland’s developing market. Another strong factor was that, despite Poland having, at that time, one of the largest confectionery markets in Central and Eastern Europe, none of Cadbury Schweppes’ major international confectionery competitors had established strong businesses there.

Although the Company could have taken a ‘wait and see’ approach (running the risk of missing a vital opportunity to develop an early market lead), it decided that there were sufficient indicators to justify an investment in Poland.

Cadbury Schweppes had three ‘route to market’ options to consider in order to respond to Poland’s market needs. The options were:

• export from other Cadbury Schweppes companies

• acquire or form a joint venture with a local Polish company

• establish its own factory locally.

When Poland first left the communist regime the government pursued a policy of open trade which resulted in a flood of imports. To protect local industry the Polish government established import duties which were particularly high on goods such as confectionery.

Under these conditions, exporting to Poland was not an economically viable option to Cadbury Schweppes. Cadbury Schweppes evaluated the leading Polish confectionery companies to assess their suitability for acquisition or joint venture. However, several problems, such as over-staffing or lack of investment, were found to be common across all of them.

So, having rejected the first two options, Cadbury Schweppes decided to explore local manufacture as the most appropriate route into the Polish market.

Although the confectionery market in Poland was known to be large, market research was conducted to determine whether that market would be suitable for Cadbury Schweppes’ products.

Tastes in confectionery vary the world over and Cadbury chose to manufacture products from its existing range which would particularly suit the Polish taste. It also decided to manufacture a range of budget-priced products under the name of Piasten, Cadbury Schweppes’ brand in Germany.

Having identified the product range and its acceptability to Polish consumers it was then possible for Cadbury Schweppes to forecast the potential sales which could be achieved in Poland.

This information, together with estimates of the costs involved in setting up and running the manufacturing operation, enabled the Company to determine that the project was financially viable. In 1993 Cadbury Schweppes took the decision to invest more than £20m in building a factory and developing a new confectionery business on a greenfield site in Poland.

Cadbury Schweppes began by visiting Poland to evaluate sites in several locations to improve its understanding of the Polish infrastructure and administration procedures, and to assess the general employment situation and skills availability.

The decision to develop a greenfield site at Kobierzyce, near Wroclaw in south west Poland, was based on a number of criteria:

• overall cost

• geographical location

• climatic conditions

• availability of mains services

• access to highways and trunk roads

• distance from competitors

• large regional population.

A further factor was people. Cadbury Schweppes would be joining a local community and would work closely with the local mayor and his staff at Kobierzyce, who welcomed the new investment.

It is not an easy task to build a factory in a foreign country. It requires careful co-ordination and considerable expertise.

Cadbury Schweppes appointed a team of engineering consultants to oversee all stages of the project, from selection of the contractors via a process of tendering, through to the completion of the factory construction.

The construction process was extremely challenging as the factory and offices, covering 9000 square metres, had to be completed, and production ready to start, within one year in order to meet the confectionery selling season of autumn to spring.

Time was not the only challenge. Temperature within a chocolate manufacturing plant is a major consideration in a country such as Poland, where the weather varies from -15 degrees C in winter to 33 degrees C in summer. The air conditioning, refrigeration and heating of the plant were key issues, all of which had to comply with local quality, hygiene, safety and environmental standards. The local community also had to construct water pipes, electrical power lines and telephone lines to the factory, and all were completed on time.

Building a factory is only one step in the implementation of a production facility. It is important to consider how it will operate, what production techniques it will use and what products it will manufacture. Cadbury Schweppes formed a technical team to design, engineer and procure all of the process plant and machinery required for the manufacture of the chosen product range. Also required is a team of company experts who specialise in the business of making chocolate and who understand the technical complexities of making quality products. Just as there are challenges in building a factory in an unfamiliar country, so there are challenges in filling all of the jobs necessary to run that factory.

A recruitment strategy had to be designed to meet those challenges: Should Cadbury Schweppes transfer expatriates to Poland? If so, how would they cope with the language barrier and the fact that there were no local English-speaking schools for expatriates’ children to attend? Could quality local candidates be found? If not, would potential managers relocate to Wroclaw from Warsaw and other major cities? How important was experience within Cadbury Schweppes versus knowledge of the Polish market? Cadbury Schweppes’ human resource management strategy for the Polish project was to identify local candidates wherever possible. This would give Polish individuals a sense of freedom to manage their business within a familiar environment and according to local needs, supported by resources and experience from other parts of the Cadbury Schweppes global company.

However, there was a known shortage of experience locally, particularly in the finance and marketing functions, so the company anticipated that it would need to have a fair amount of expatriate involvement, particularly in the early stages of getting the Polish business operational.

A multi-disciplinary team was formed to:

• identify the key management roles to be filled within the Polish operation

• devise a recruitment plan to attract the best quality candidates

• prepare an induction and training process for new employees.

A structure for the top management team was devised. Job descriptions were then written for the key management roles. To do this, decisions about the degree of functional expertise required had to be traded off against knowledge of Cadbury Schweppes and its operations, local Polish experience and general ‘know-how’.

A recruitment consultancy was then chosen to identify a shortlist of candidates for the key positions. The consultancy used a combination of headhunting (where candidates are approached on a company’s behalf) and job advertisements in Poland and the UK. Bearing in mind that Cadbury Schweppes was new to Central and Eastern Europe, this was very much a learning process for the team members concerned, as they knew little about Polish recruitment practice or what to expect in terms of quality and experience of candidates.

Some interviews were conducted via an interpreter, which added another level of complexity to assessing candidates. And, before making offers of employment, research was carried out to determine the salary and benefit levels which would attract the best candidates to join the company. The final decisions on recruitment were taken by the European Managing Director and the Managing Director of Cadbury Schweppes’ German company, Piasten, who would be responsible for overseeing the development of the Polish company.

Development of an induction plan ensures that new employees deliver effective work performance as quickly as possible after joining the company. As part of its induction plan for the Polish operation, Cadbury Schweppes brought key Polish employees to the UK to provide an overview of the Group’s global operations, an introduction to the company’s philosophies, values and history and then the confectionery industry and Polish market. The Polish team was also introduced to colleagues established businesses elsewhere in the Group, who would be able to provide information and advice when needed.

In new ventures such as this, there is a real demand for company knowledge and experience, particularly in the early stages of development. Such opportunities are often taken up by existing Cadbury Schweppes managers who are encouraged to move internationally within the Group to gain wider experience, while transferring their knowledge newcomers.

Cadbury Schweppes offers a series of career programmes for junior and senior managers to gain such experience and managers from the Polish business are already moving elsewhere within the Group!

A new business brings many benefits to the local community. One of the benefits derived from this project was that the funds generated by the sale of land to Cadbury Schweppes helped to enable a new school to be built in Kobierzyce.

Another key benefit was that, in an area of high unemployment, local applicants secured many of the factory jobs. Cadbury Schweppes is also committed to actively contribute to the communities in which it operates and to improve the environment in which people live and work. Its operating units support community activity through locally targeted programmes throughout the world. This may include financial support, commercial sponsorship and the provision of local facilities.

Question 1: Building a factory is only one step in the implementation of a___ facility

Select one:

a. operation

b. manufacturing

c. production

d. both a & b

Question 2

Cadbury Schweppes had___ ‘route to market’ options to consider in order to respond to Poland’s market needs

Select one:

a. three

b. four

c. eight

d. six

Question 3

Cadbury Schweppes offers a series of career programmes for__ and senior managers

Select one:

a. senior

b. new joinees

c. junior

d. All of the above

Question 4

Company could have taken a __ approach to develop an early market lead

Select one:

a. wait and watch

b. watch and wait

c. see and wait

d. wait and see

Question 5

Development of an ____ plan ensures that new employees deliver effective work performance

Select one:

a. orientation

b. induction

c. both a & b

d. none of the above

Question 6

Temperature within a chocolate manufacturing plant is a major consideration in a country such as Poland, where the weather varies from -15 degrees C in winter to __degrees C in summer

Select one:

a. 33

b. 42

c. 32

d. 32

Question 7

The consultancy used a combination of headhunting and job advertisements in ___and the UK

Select one:

a. Poland

b. Europe

c. Hongkong

d. Germnay

Question 8

The decision to develop a greenfield site at Kobierzyce, near Wroclaw in south west Poland, was based on a number of criteria:

Select one:

a. overall cost

b. geographical location

c. climatic conditions

d. All of the above

Question 9

The final decisions on recruitment were taken by the___ and the Managing Director of Cadbury Schweppes’ German company, Piasten.

Select one:

a. Managing Director

b. European Managing Director

c. Manager

d. All of the above

Question 10

These rapidly changing political, economic and social factors were key influences in __Schweppes’decision to enter Poland’s developing market.

Select one:

a. Dairy milk

b. Schmittens

c. both a & b

d. Cadbury

10/10

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2nd Module Assessment

Case Study

A UNISON case study

UNISON is Britain and Europe’s biggest public sector trade union, representing more than 1.3 million members working in public services. Job roles they represent in the public sector include, for example:

• librarians

• Human Resources, IT and finance workers

• teaching assistants and early years nursery staff

• secretaries

• cleaners, caretakers and school meals supervisors

• care workers, social workers and nurses.

UNISON campaigns on a variety of issues relevant to its members. Currently, it is running the Migrant Workers Participation Project. This campaign focuses on the issues faced by migrant workers in the UK. Migrant workers are employees who have moved from overseas to the UK to find work. They form an important and growing part of the workforce in both the private sector and public sector.

These workers are at particular risk of being exploited in the workplace. This may be due to lack of knowledge of their rights, their limited command of the English language and the fact that they are often reluctant to complain about their treatment by employers. They may also be exploited because of racist attitudes. UNISON believes that the best way of preventing exploitation is through trade union representation in the workplace. One of the objectives of the current UNISON campaign is to increase the number of migrant workers who are part of the union.

When making decisions, a business needs to take account of internal and external factors:

• Internal factors are ones that are within its control. Examples include how many staff the business employs, the number of machines it uses and how much money owners choose to invest in the business.

• External factors are those that are outside of its control. These may be direct or indirect influences. Direct influences include suppliers, customers and competitors. Indirect influences include legislation, the economy or technology.

These external influences are summarised by the mnemonic PEST. This stands for Political, Economic, Social and Technological influences.

UNISON looks at a range of issues to assess the external factors it needs to take account of when considering the needs of its members. UNISON considered these factors when setting its aims and objectivesfor protecting the rights of migrant workers. An understanding of many external factors helped it to decide which strategies and tactics were best for achieving these objectives.

Political factors include government policies, legislation and foreign influences, particularly from the European Union (EU). Several political factors surround the issue of immigration. Legislation on immigration comes both from the UK government and from the EU. For example, workers from all EU countries, except Romania and Bulgaria, have the right to live and work in the UK. Since the expansion of the EU in 2004, around 700,000 Polish workers have registered to work in the UK, boosting the UK workforce, enabling the economy to expand.

Immigration is an emotive issue, which often generates sensational headlines in tabloid newspapers. These include allegations that migrant workers ‘take’ British jobs or that they ‘undercut’ pay levels, working for less than British workers. The data available does not support these allegations. UNISON believes that if migrant workers are part of a trade union membership and can benefit from properly negotiated pay rates, this type of misinformation will not arise.

As part of its campaign, UNISON aims to dispel the negative views on migration. Migrant workers play an extremely important role in providing many needed services. This provision would not be possible without migrant workers. Government statistics prove that the overall effects of net migration into the UK have been positive for UK businesses and the economy.

In areas of high migrant populations, there are greater pressures due to, for example, insufficient housing and health provision. The migrant workers population is not evenly spread across the UK – the majority of migrants are in London and the South East, according to government statistics.

In addition, because of the short-term nature of much of the work, the pattern of migrant workers is not easy to track. Government and local authorities need to be able to invest in services sufficiently quickly to meet the demand. It is important to understand that the same pressures on services would occur if large numbers of UK workers suddenly moved to an area.

One of the most important political factors in UNISON’s external environment is employment legislation. UNISON aims to ensure that these laws meet the needs of workers by lobbying the government when it feels the law needs changing. In a recent report, the Trade Union Congress (TUC) found that many employers were ignoring employment law. Some companies were not paying their workers the minimum wage, while others forced workers to work longer than legally permitted under the working time directive. It can be very difficult for migrant workers to get legal advice when they have problems at work. This is partly due to language barriers. Many also fear losing their jobs if they complain.

Like other low-paid workers, they rely on legal advice, paid for by the government through legal aid. Reduced funding for legal aid and for immigration advice in particular has resulted in fewer solicitors taking on legal aid cases. Many migrant workers seeking help have been turned away. As a result, UNISON has put in place legal advice and information services to help migrant workers understand their rights

Most migrants come to the UK from countries that are less economically developed. They can earn a better wage in the UK than in their home country. For example, the average monthly salary in the UK in 2007 was almost £2,500 whereas in Poland it was £500. This difference in wages allows the migrants to enjoy an improved standard of living. The migrant workers are also able to send money back to their families who remain in their home countries.

However, as well as the economic benefits migrant workers receive themselves, they are also an important part of the UK economy, both in public and private sectors. According to government figures, the working output of new migration adds 0.5% to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In 2006, this was equivalent to adding an extra £6 billion to the economy.

One of the reasons why migration improves the economy is that it increases the size of the total labour market. Migrant workers to the UK replenish a decreasing workforce. In 2006, 400,000 people left the UK and 590,000 people arrived, 157,000 of these came to study. Migrant workers fill several areas of the labour market where there are skills shortages or they do jobs that people in the UK do not want to do because the working conditions may be poor or wages low. Often migrant workers are ‘de-skilled’ because they take work in different industries at a lower skill level than the one for which they are qualified. These industries include agriculture, hospitality and food packing.

Many business leaders express the view that migrant workers often have a more positive work ethic than domestic workers. Employing workers who not only have the necessary skills but who are also keen to work allows many businesses to achieve a competitiveadvantage. UNISON recognises the benefits to the economy that migrants bring. It has worked hard to ensure that workers receive fair pay and valid career opportunities to keep attracting migrant workers to the UK.

A number of social factors have increased the flow of workers into the UK. Many migrants moved to the UK to improve their standard of living. Social factors in the UK also contribute to the demand for migrant workers in the UK. The UK has an ageing population. Without immigration, the labour force would be shrinking. As a result, there is a smaller labour force supporting the growing population of retired workers. This is forecast to get worse over the next 20 years. There are also specific vocational areas where the UK has a skills shortage. For example, 16% of all care workers are migrant workers. These workers are skilled workers who have trained in their home nations. Without them, the range of care provision would be less.

Many social issues may affect migrant workers whilst they are in the UK. For example, UNISON is aware that many migrant workers have difficulty communicating in English. This creates problems with understanding important documents such as contracts of employment, company rules and notices. Migrant workers are often unaware of their rights in the workplace.

The language barrier also affects migrants outside the workplace. It causes difficulties in shops, accessing housing and education and understanding the welfare system. Not being able to understand cultural issues such as behaviour and customs is another big factor. Together these problems make many migrant workers feel socially excluded from English-speaking co-workers.

UNISON has helped many migrant workers overcome these issues in different ways:

• It produces workers’ rights leaflets in 11 different languages.

• It also works with community groups like the ONNS (Overseas Network of Nurses in Scotland). These groups provide advice and social communities for overseas workers.

• UNISON has provided information on welfare and tax so workers can understand what they need to pay and any benefits they can receive.

• Recently it has developed a dedicated migrant workers” section on its website where key information is available in a range of languages.

• It is also running ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) courses to help migrant members learn English.

As part of UNISON’s bargaining agenda, it is seeking to make employers aware of the issues that are important to migrant workers. For example, it wants employers to print health and safety rules in other languages and to provide migrant workers with a welcome pack that gives information about local services and sources of information. It also aims to persuade employers to provide paid time off and pay course costs for workers attending language courses. Because migrant workers are better able to identify the bargaining issues that are important to them, UNISON believes it is important for them to be members and actively involved in the union.

Changes in technology, including a rise in automation in the workplace and the development of the internet, have transformed the way in which many businesses work:

• Automation of production processes in factories means less-skilled workers are needed.

• The internet has opened up a need for information processing in purchasing and data management areas, for example, in online shopping. Many migrant graduates have come to fill these more specialised vacancies.

• The biggest technological factor affecting migration has been the increased availability and reduced cost of transport. Over 75% of migrants fly into the UK, most using budget airlines.

• Advances in online money transfers enable migrant workers to send money home easily and securely. This makes them more willing to migrate.A United Nations statistic shows that migrant workers send home over twice the amount given in international aid to developing countries.

• Improvements in telecommunications have made it easier for potential migrants to discover what job opportunities are available. Through online chat rooms, they gain information and advice from other migrants from their own country and can keep in contact with friends and family in their home countries.

UNISON’s website is an important means of communicating with members. For example, it has welfare pages providing migrants with information about the benefits they can receive. The site provides access to leaflets in a range of different languages. These give advice on their rights at work and information about health and safety. This greatly improves the livelihood and work experience of UNISON members.

UNISON aims to improve the working lives of migrant workers by increasing their level of trade union representation.

PEST analysis is a useful tool for analysing the external environment surrounding migrant workers. It also helps to identify and understand the reasons why migrants come to the UK and the issues they face. UNISON has worked hard to raise awareness of the economic benefits migrant workers bring to the UK economy.

UNISON greatly supports migrant workers. It has provided them with a range of advice and assistance. This has made it easier for them to settle in the workplace.

UNISON has an ongoing role in persuading employers and the government to implement policies to benefit migrant workers. This has enabled the UK economy to benefit from the increasing number of workers migrating here. Migrants provide an increasingly skilled workforce necessary to maintain the growing number of services demanded by the UK’s growing economy.

Question 1: ESOL stands for English for __ of Other Languages

Select one:

a. Speakers

b. Speak

c. skilled

d. support

Question 2

Improvements in ___ have made it easier for potential migrants to discover what job opportunities are available.

Select one:

a. Media

b. telecommunications

c. Technology

d. Infrastructure

Question 3

Migrant workers are employees who have moved from overseas to___ the to find work

Select one:

a. US

b. London

c. UK

d. Honkong

Question 4

migrant workers are ____because they take work in different industries at a lower skill level than the one for which they are qualified

Select one:

a. de-skilled

b. unskilled

c. skilled

d. unemployed

Question 5

One of the objectives of the current UNISON campaign is to increase the number of ___workers who are part of the union

Select one:

a. migrant

b. actual

c. unskilled

d. both b & c

Question 6

Over___ of migrants fly into the UK, most using budget airlines.

Select one:

a. 78%

b. 74%

c. 74.60%

d. 75%

Question 7

PEST stands for Political, Economic, Social and ___

Select one:

a. Tactics

b. Time

c. Both a & b

d. Technological influences.

Question 8

PEST analysis is a useful tool for analysing___ the environment surrounding migrant workers.

Select one:

a. Internal

b. external

c. Both a & b

d. all of the above

Question 9

UNISON greatly supports ___workers

Select one:

a. uskilled

b. semi-skilled

c. migrant

d. US

Question 10

UNISON is Britain and Europe’s biggest public sector ____

Select one:

a. Union

b. trade union

c. Both a & b

d. None of the above

10/10

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3rd Module Assessment

Case Study

In September 2015, US-based Nike, Inc. the world’s leading designer, marketer, and distributor of athletic footwear, apparel, equipment, and accessories, announced that the sales of its footwear in Greater China had increased by 36% and that of its apparel by 22% during the quarter ending August 2015. The news sent Nike’s stock surging by 9%. Orders scheduled for delivery between September 2015 and January 2016 grew by 30% in China.

Nike projected that its Greater China business would grow at an average of 15% a year to achieve sales of US$ 6.5 billion by 2020 while its global sales would reach US$ 50 billion. Experts said that with the Chinese government mandating sports as a growth category, Nike was all set to grow further in the market. The news of Nike performing well in a country that was undergoing macroeconomic changes and where several other companies were reporting declining revenues came as a surprise to the industry experts…

Nike was founded by a track athlete, Philip Knight (Philip), and a track coach at the University of Oregon, Bill Bowerman (Bill) in 1964. In 1957, Philip was studying at the University of Oregon and it was here that he met Bill who was the athletics coach. Philip and Bill realized the need for a low cost but good quality running shoe. At that time, leading track shoes were being produced by European companies. These shoes were made of leather, had very bad cushioning, and used steel spikes for traction. Philip and Bill started to design shoes that were lighter, better padded, and featured waffle like patterns in their rubber soles. These models didn’t see much commercial success. Later, when Philip was doing his MBA at Stanford University, he did a marketing research dissertation on the US shoe manufacturing industry.

He proposed in his dissertation that low cost, high quality running shoes could be imported from Asian countries like Japan, where labor was cheaper, and sold in markets like the US. Philip was confident that cheaper shoes that were of good quality would be highly successful in the US market and could end the domination of German companies in the industry…

Philip had always thought China was a market which held huge potential for Nike. In the 1970s, when Nike started a subsidiary in Taiwan, it was given Nike’s original name ‘Blue Ribbon Sports’. This was because Philip was not keen on using the name Nike in Taiwan, as China considered Taiwan to be a renegade province.

Nike started manufacturing in China during the 1970s. Philip visited China in 1980, when the country was emerging out of the Cultural Revolution. At that time, Nike’s sales were US$ 150 million and the company was all set to go in for an IPO. At that time, China had not yet become the manufacturing hub for the world and was nowhere close to becoming the fastest growing market in the world. Philip, however, felt that China offered several opportunities, with its low wages and talented manpower. He was of the view that with some up gradation, the factories would be able to produce what Nike wanted. Within a year he started negotiating with the Chinese Communist party. At that time, the government was moving slowly toward economic liberalization. Deng Xiaoping, who succeeded Mao Zedong was looking at doubling China’s GDP by the end of the 1980s…

NIKE FOR CHINESE

Nike’s consumer presence in China started in the 1980s. In 1981, it opened a small marketing office in the country with six employees. It started to make its presence felt in the market by sponsoring several sports related events, including professional leagues. Nike launched professional sporting leagues, and was instrumental in building the American ‘streetball’ culture in China…

NIKE GROWS WITH CHINA

In 2000, top officials of Nike China met to decide on their strategy for the Olympic Games of 2008. At that point, Beijing was competing with other cities – Toronto, Paris, Istanbul, and Osaka – to host the Games. Earlier, Beijing had lost out to Sydney in its bid to host the 2000 Games, and the Chinese government was determined to succeed this time around. This required the International Olympic Committee to select a host city. Each member of the IOC had one vote. The members voted for the cities and several rounds were conducted until one city received a majority of the votes (The city that received minimum votes in each round was eliminated)….

THE FALL

After the Olympic Games of 2008, there was a growing demand for athletic gear and athletic footwear. Several brands invested heavily anticipating high sales, but the demand was short lived, and several companies were forced to close down their stores. ..

THE REJIG

In 2013, Nike adopted the ‘Reset’ strategy in China in order to achieve profitable and sustainable growth and reposition the brand in the market. Under this strategy, Nike applied the insights it had gained from the ‘Category offense’ strategy it had used in the North American market in the Chinese market. This was a part of Nike’s plan to translate its key strategies into locally relevant executions. ..

LOOKING AHEAD

Experts said Nike had managed to turn its fortunes around by repositioning itself as a high-end brand targeting the upper middle class, instead of a mass market brand. They said with the changes in the Chinese economy, those companies that catered to the mass market were struggling, whereas high-end products were gaining ground by finding acceptance among the consumers.

Question 1: Each member of the IOC had ___ vote

Select one:

a. two

b. three

c. one

d. five

Question 2

Nike adopted the___ strategy in China in order to achieve profitable and sustainable growth and reposition the brand in the market

Select one:

a. Market

b. Corporate

c. Reset

d. Niche

Question 3

Nike applied the insights it had gained from the ___ strategy

Select one:

a. insight

b. niche

c. both a & b

d. Category offense

Question 4

Nike had managed to turn its fortunes around by repositioning itself as a high-end brand targeting the____instead of a mass market brand.

Select one:

a. Lower class

b. Middle class

c. Both a & b

d. upper middle class

Question 5

Nike projected that its Greater China business would grow to achieve sales of US$ 6.5 billion by __

Select one:

a. 2020

b. 2021

c. 2022

d. 2023

Question 6

Nike projected that its Greater China business would grow at an average of __a year

Select one:

a. 14%

b. 12%

c. 15%

d. 17%

Question 7

Nike started a subsidiary in Taiwan, it was given Nike’s original name __

Select one:

a. Blue Ribbon Sports

b. Blue bells

c. Yellow ribbons

d. Red ribbon sports

Question 8

Nike was founded by Philip Knight and ___ in 1964.

Select one:

a. Bill jones

b. Bill Bowerman

c. John Davidson

d. Philip stewart

Question 9

Nike’s consumer presence in China started in the __

Select one:

a. 1980

b. 1985

c. 1987

d. 1982

Question 10

Nike’s sales were US$ 150 million and the company was all set to go in for an ___

Select one:

a. OPI

b. IPO.

c. IRO

d. RIO

10/10

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4th Module Assessment

Case Study

Lenovo : Challenger to Leader

Beijing-based multinational technology giant, Lenovo Group Limited (Lenovo), recorded a market share of 16.7 percent in the global personal computer (PC) market in the first quarter (Q1) ended June 30, 2013, emerging as the clear leader in the market, according to both International Data Corporation (IDC) and Gartner Inc. (Gartner). While IDC said that Lenovo had recorded a growth of 15 percent from the Q1 of 2012, Gartner put the growth from Q1 of 2012 at 14.9 percent. Experts said this was the first time that both IDC and Gartner had given the top spot to Lenovo.Founded in 1984 as Legend Holdings Limited, Lenovo sold computer products of branded PC makers such as Dell Inc. (Dell), Hewlett-Packard (HP), and Compaq Computer Corporation in its initial years.

Sensing the potential in the lucrative Chinese PC market, the company started selling its own brand of desktop PCs in 1990 and emerged as the leader in the Chinese PC market in 1996. In 2005, the company acquired the PC division of US-based multinational technology giant, International Business Machine (IBM). This gave the Lenovo brand global recognition in addition to making it the third largest PC maker in the world by volume behind HP and Dell. For the financial year (FY) ended March 31, 2013, Lenovo recorded sales of US$ 34 billion, a Year on Year (YoY) increase of 15 percent.

The history of Lenovo dates back to 1984 when it was started as New Technology Developer Inc., the predecessor of the Legend Group Ltd. (Legend) by Founder and Chairman, Liu Chuanzhi (Chuanzhi) along with ten colleagues at the government-owned Computing Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) with US$ 25000 in cash. The company was started with the aim of commercializing the research and development (R&D) activities conducted at CAS.

In 1985, as its first business deal, the company took over the responsibility of receiving, checking, and maintaining IBM computers imported by CAS and training the staff of the CAS.

The company invested its profits of US$ 146,583 it received from servicing the IBM computers into the design, production, and marketing of its first product – the Chinese character card – HanCard. The Chinese character card that translated English operating software into Chinese characteristics was based on the original concept developed by the Institute of Computer Technology (ICT) of CAS. At that time, foreign vendors could not come out with such an operating system for PCs in China. The successful launch of the Chinese card boosted Lenovo’s growth in the early 1990s

Globalization Strategies

Lenovo believed that in order to become a global brand, it was not enough to just be identified as a global firm. Establishing a presence in more developed and highly globalized areas such as the US and Europe was essential for Lenovo’s overall strategy. During this time, in 2002, the Chinese government announced its ‘go global’ policy. This policy encouraged Chinese companies that had the capability and expertise to expand abroad.

Lenovo was quick to respond to this government initiative. However, the company soon realized challenges to its global expansion: it did not have a brand name that was recognizable worldwide, a strong presence in the world market, or the human talent to run and manage a global company.

Ruling The China Market

In the 1990s, Lenovo was the first company to introduce the home computer concept in China and grew into a national company cornering a market share of 27 percent in the domestic market. Lenovo’s competency stood in its deep understanding of the domestic market and quick response to local demands of the consumers……..

Protect And Attack Strategy

Despite ruling the Chinese PC market, Lenovo suffered a setback due to the global economic slowdown in mid-2008 which led to Lenovo posting a loss of US$ 226 million. During this time, the company’s CEO William Amelio stepped down in favor of Yuanqing, who took over as CEO, while Chuanzhi returned assuming the role of Chairman

The company’s Protect and Attack strategy started reaping benefits in 2010. The company said that for the FY ended March 2011, its profits had risen to US$ 273 million from US$ 129.4 million in 2010. The company’s global sales also increased by 30 percent to US$ 21.6 billion during the same period. While China contributed to 46.4 percent of its sales, or US$ 10 billion, other emerging markets contributed 17.9 percent, or US$ 3.9 billion. ……

According to a survey in 2009 by Shaun Rein, head of China Market Research Group, on Chinese consumers’ brand perceptions, “Five years ago, consumer satisfaction rates of Lenovo were extremely high–consumers felt proud that China had a global brand in consumer electronics that they felt was better than Dell and HP and closer to the Chinese consumer.” But as Lenovo neglected the Chinese market to focus on other markets from 2006-2009, domestic consumer satisfaction rates began to decline……

In April 2013, Lenovo restructured itself into two business groups – Lenovo Business Group and Think Business Group –in a bid to target mainstream (PC, laptop, and tablet) and high-end segments respectively. According to Yuanqing, the restructuring aimed at streamlining operations and management to better fit the company’s expanding business worldwide. The company positioned the Think brand to compete against Apple and planned to open fancy showrooms like Apple’s.

Question 1: CAS stands for Chinese ___of Sciences

Select one:

a. Association

b. Acquisition

c. both a & b

d. Academy

Question 2

CEO of Lenevo ___

Select one:

a. Ynaguin

b. Yuanging

c. Yuanhiqng

d. Yuanqing

Question 3

in 2002, the Chinese government announced its ___ policy

Select one:

a. Economic

b. Technological

c. go global

d. Both a & c

Question 4

In 2005, the company acquired the PC division of US-based multinational technology giant ___

Select one:

a. TCS

b. Japan

c. International Business Machine (IBM)

d. None of the above

Question 5

Lenovo restructured itself into two business groups – Lenovo Business Group and ___

Select one:

a. Master group

b. Think Business Group

c. both a & b

d. None of the above

Question 6

Lenovo suffered a setback due to the global ___ in mid-2008

Select one:

a. Approach

b. economic slowdown

c. Policy

d. Strategy

Question 7

Lenovo was the first company to introduce the home computer concept in __

Select one:

a. China

b. Japan

c. Singapore

d. Poland

Question 8

The Chinese character card was based on the original concept developed by the ___of CAS

Select one:

a. Institute of Computer Technology (ICT)

b. Government

c. both a & b

d. All of the above

Question 9

The company positioned the Think brand to compete against ___

Select one:

a. Dell

b. HP

c. Apple

d. All of the above

Question 10

The successful launch of the Chinese card boosted Lenovo’s growth in the early ___

Select one:

a. 1990

b. 1998

c. 1894

d. 1992

10/10

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5th Module Assessment

Case Study

Aldi in the UK: Cost Leadership through Operational Excellence

In September 2014, Germany-based discount retailer Aldi announced that its pre-tax profit in the UK and Ireland had increased by 65 percent in 2013 from the £157.9 million it had registered in 2012. Aldi’s share in the retail segment in the UK was 4.8% as of April 2104 and its growing clout was a cause for concern for the ‘Big Four’ retailers – Tesco , Sainsbury’s , Morrisons , and Asda . In addition, Aldi also announced that it would increase its number of stores in the country to about 1,000 by 2022 from 500 in 2014.

Experts said that move was likely to increase the competition further. According to Lloyd Harris, Professor of Marketing, Warwick Business School, “Could the results of Aldi reflect the start of a slow demise for the Big Four? It might just be…If the market trends continue, the Big Four food¬retailers are going to find themselves squeezed.” Aldi was known for its distinctive business practices and was considered a pioneer in discount retailing in Germany. It was the third most respected corporate brand in Germany behind BMW and Siemens.

It operated in several countries in Europe and entered the UK in 1990. Aldi struggled in its initial years in the UK. However, it stuck to its goal of ‘providing customers with the products they buy regularly and ensure that those products are of the highest possible quality at guaranteed low prices’. It started attracting middleclass shoppers in the UK by offering better products at a lower price. The shoppers from the Big Four and other retailers also gradually shifted toward discount retailers, and the basket size of the shoppers went on increasing. The popularity of the chain increased during recession, specifically among the middle class shoppers who were looking for good quality products at affordable prices. …….

Based in Germany, Albrecht Discount, abbreviated as Aldi, evolved over the years from a small grocery store into a leading super market retail chain. It was founded by two brothers, Karl Albrecht (Karl) and Theo Albrecht (Theo). Their father, a miner, had to give up his job owing to ill health. In 1913, their mother started a food store in their family home in Schonnebeck area, Essen, Germany, in order to meet the family’s needs.

The brothers were a part of the Wehrmacht (unified armed forces of Germany) and took part in World War II, during which they were taken prisoner of war. After they returned from the prisoner-of-war camps they found that their mother’s store was among the few remaining structures that had survived the bombings in Essen city, which was razed during the war. The brothers took over the store.

There was a swift growth in their business after that and the two started opening stores across the city selling milk, bread, butter, and other necessary items. The brothers kept the operation of the stores very simple with an uncomplicated layout, limited range of goods in stock, and no extra services. The prices they charged were thus also lower. Albrecht Discount Company was incorporated in the year 1948 and had about 13 stores operating in the Ruhr area. The store’s figures kept escalating to reach 50 stores in 1954…..

Strategies In The UK

Aldi entered the UK in 1990 and opened its first store at Birmingham. At that time, consumers in the UK were not used to shopping at discount stores, which offered a small range of goods (mostly own-brands or private labels). Aldi’s strategy in the UK was to target the gap in the lower segment of the market and compete with discount retailers like Kwik Save. In the UK, as in the other markets, Aldi operated on the principles of standardization, simplicity, and continuous improvement.

Aldi continued with its model of providing high-quality, exclusive products at the lowest possible prices, and maintaining a limited range of products in the UK too. According to company insiders, Aldi managed without budgets and targets. The products to be stocked in a store were not decided by the central marketing department, as was the case with most of the top retailers. Instead, Aldi started new stores with some of the basic products that consumers would need and stocked them on a trial basis. It then took about a year to finalize the list of products.

Unique Business Model Of Aldi

Each Aldi store occupied around 1,000 sq. meters. The stores were located in areas on the edge of town with good visibility. For opening a store, Aldi needed the population of that area to be around 30,000. It ensured that the store was well connected to the public transport and a number of parking spaces were available at the store.The layout was simple to provide a quick and convenient shopping experience. The checkouts were spacious. All the products had bar codes at three places to enable faster scanning and billing. A double guarantee was offered on all Aldi products and the customers could easily get refunds along with a free replacement for their purchases at the stores. Shoppers were encouraged to bring their own shopping bags. ………

The Road Ahead

Summing up Aldi’s strategy in the UK, Roman Heini, group managing director of Aldi UK, said, “We keep prices constantly low while keeping product quality consistently high, which is exactly what shoppers want. They had become used to thinking you have to pay more for better products. We’ve shown them this doesn’t have to be the case. We work efficiently and responsibly to reduce operational costs. Rather than use these savings to boost margins, we lower prices at the checkout. Shoppers appreciate this and know that, while they’re paying less at Aldi, they’re getting much more for their money.

Question 1: Albrecht Discount Company was incorporated in the year ___

Select one:

a. 1945

b. 1948

c. 1956

d. 1957

Question 2

Aldi entered the UK in 1990 and opened its first store at ___

Select one:

a. Birmingham

b. UK

c. Poland

d. Brazil

Question 3

Aldi needed the population of that area to be around __

Select one:

a. 320000

b. 30,000.00

c. 31000

d. 350000

Question 4

Aldi operated on the principles of standardization, simplicity, and ___

Select one:

a. continuous improvement.

b. Improvemnet

c. Motivation

d. Involvemnet

Question 5

Aldi was known for its distinctive ___

Select one:

a. Features

b. Strategy

c. business practices

d. Policies

Question 6

Aldi’s share in the retail segment in the UK was -__ as of April 2014

Select one:

a. 4.80%

b. 4.90%

c. 4.70%

d. 4.60%

Question 7

Aldi’s strategy in the UK “We keep prices constantly low while keeping product quality consistently___ , which is exactly what shoppers want”

Select one:

a. low

b. medium

c. high

d. none of the above

Question 8

consumers in the UK were not used to shopping at ___

Select one:

a. Stroes

b. discount stores

c. New stores

d. none of the above

Question 9

Shoppers were encouraged to bring their own ____

Select one:

a. bags

b. carriers

c. both a & b

d. shopping bags

Question 10

__was unified armed forces of Germany

Select one:

a. Werhmht

b. Werhtmacht

c. both a & b

d. Wehrmacht

10/10

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Assignment 2

Significant in size with almost 70% of the market. However, with plenty of scope for further product developments and for repeat business. The growth of digital technology has not deterred Agfa and its competitors from bringing out new, improved products for use with ‘old’ technology.

• The real difference between analogue and digital lies in how images are recorded and processed. Analogue photography uses traditional cameras to expose silver-halide film. This still remains the most widely used way to capture images. Customers are well served with a variety of excellent products, from traditional slide and print films to Advanced Photo Systems (APS) films and single-use cameras with enhanced capability.

• Compared with digital systems, recent analogue advances are ‘low tech’, but so too is their cost. Image quality is excellent, and represents optimum value. The technology can also be applied widely; even single-use cameras take good pictures. However, analogue images cannot be viewed instantly, take time to enlarge or reduce and are on prints or negatives that cannot be re-used. Negatives need optimum storage conditions to remain in good condition long term. The chemicals used in processing also raise some environmental issues. Digital technology represents a genuine advance because it removes many of these difficulties.

• Digital images

• Digital images are based upon a grid or matrix. They vary in the quality of their resolution, which is expressed in pixels or dots per inch (dpi) or millimetre. The higher the resolution, the better the picture, and the more expensive the equipment producing it.

• There is a wide range of affordable digital cameras on the market now, offering varying levels of quality, capabilities and prices. There are also thousands of commercially available CD-ROMs offering images, graphics and more, all at different quality, sophistication and price levels. Consumers can also turn to the Internet, where millions of images are available for downloading to a PC.

• Digital offers some real advantages. Images are held in a digital file and are available for use immediately. They can be transferred immediately from camera to PC, where they can be compressed, amended, altered and despatched using e-mail, fast ISDN lines and the internet. They can be downloaded and printed or transferred to CDs using recently developed copying equipment that retains image quality at a high level.

• Consumers can take CDs to an Agfa Image Center where the quality, format and resolution can be chosen. Digital images have transformed access, ease of use and transmission of images to provide a flexible series of solutions for customer needs. With instantaneous image capture, digital images require only minimal storage facilities. Images can also be manipulated and altered and only the chosen images need to be put into print format.

• However, at the present stage of development, really high quality digitally produced images do not come cheap; the equipment required is expensive. Professional users face high set-up costs, but in industries where speed, quality, and flexibility in use really matter, the price is worth paying. Imaging is an industry where copyright is jealously guarded, and ease of transfer brings with it problems of security and copyright protection. Digital files can also be lost or become corrupted, so some form of back-up is vital. Agfa is aware of these additional consumer and business needs and continues to work on ways of meeting them.

• The imaging industry now has two main product markets: analogue and digital. Each product has strengths and weaknesses, the importance of which varies according to customer needs and requirements.

• There remains a need for both analogue and digital imaging, depending upon the requirements of client groups. For example, during construction, gas and oil pipelines need their joints X-rayed with periodical follow-up checks so that cracks and defects can be detected. This is a job for tried and tested analogue systems.

On the other hand, digital technologies have helped to transform the work of hospital radiologists. For example, a software package developed by Agfa called MUSICA (Multiscale Image Contrast Amplification) enables radiologists to manipulate X-ray images in various ways. Edges can be sharpened up to reveal key details, and images can be rotated to offer alternative perspectives. Users can zoom in on details, and select and sort images in a search for recurring patterns. Images can be shared across a number of hospital workstations and can also be transmitted for immediate expert analysis elsewhere.

The best investment programmes are supported by painstaking research: market research into what consumers require and product research to establish what the new technology can and cannot do for them. Agfa is at the heart of changes in imaging brought about by new technology. It is leading. It is also listening and learning. In a highly competitive industry, Agfa’s thorough approach is enabling it to retain important competitive advantages over its closest and fiercest rival

Question 1: Agfa’s operations involve a high level of ___

Select one:

a. Creativity

b. Uniqueness

c. innovation

d. authenticity

Question 2

Consumers can take CDs to an Agfa Image Center where the quality, format and ____can be chosen.

Select one:

a. resolution

b. Pattern

c. Both a & b

d. None of the above

Question 3

Digital images are based upon a ____

Select one:

a. grid

b. metrix

c. perception

d. light

Question 4

Digital technologies are changing the way in which people take ___and use images

Select one:

a. Pictures

b. Images

c. Both a & b

d. process

Question 5

Digital technology is transforming __

Select one:

a. newspaper production

b. Education

c. people

d. Communication

Question 6

Negatives need ___ storage conditions to remain in good condition long term

Select one:

a. more

b. less

c. Both a & b

d. optimum

Question 7

The Agfa-Gevaert Group de-velops, produces and distributes an extensive range of analogue and ____

Select one:

a. digital

b. Light rays

c. diode

d. digital imaging systems

Question 8

The best investment programmes are supported by ___ research

Select one:

a. Marketing

b. painstaking

c. Cross-sectional

d. Longitudinal

Question 9

The imaging industry now has two main product markets: ___and digital

Select one:

a. Customer driven

b. analogue

c. Corporate

d. All of the above

Question 10

The real difference between analogue and digital lies in how images are___ and processed

Select one:

a. Looked

b. recorded

c. Seen

d. both a & b

10/10

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Foreign Trade Policy (EDL 411)-Semester IV

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Foreign Trade Policy (EDL 411)-Semester IV

Wal-Mart Stores Inc. (Wal-Mart) entered Japan in March 2002, through an alliance with Seiyu Limited (Seiyu), Japan’s fifth largest retailer in 2002. There were mixed reactions from analysts.

Some cited macro-economic factors like the low rate of growth4 and an aging population that made Japan’s retail market less than attractive. However, others felt that despite these factors, Japan’s $451 billion retail industry was sufficiently large to justify Wal-Mart’s interest.

As soon as it entered Japan, Wal-Mart brought in its best practices in retailing like Every Day Low Prices5 (EDLP) and Rollback,6 for which the firm was renowned. It also attempted to introduce substantial changes to the management of Seiyu stores by revamping its store layouts, and implementing Retail Link,7 its widely appreciated supply chain management software. Despite these efforts, Seiyu registered consecutive losses in 2003 and 2004.

Some experts commented that Wal-Mart’s retailing model was not suitable for Japan. They pointed out that Japanese consumers preferred conveniently located stores within the city and were not visibly price-conscious. They added that foreign retailers had trouble with procurements due to the multi layered network of suppliers and retailers in the Japanese retail sector.

Experts began to compare Wal-Mart’s experiences in Japan with its experiences in other countries such as Mexico and Germany. While Wal-Mart had a shaky start in Mexico, it later emerged as a market leader in the country. In Germany, however, it could not overcome initial setbacks and was still struggling. Experts wondered whether the Japanese venture would replicate the Mexican success story or the German misadventure. In August 2005, Wal-Mart announced that it was contemplating launching stores with its own brand name in Japan. This seemed like a bold move by Wal-Mart, especially since another big foreign retailer – Carrefour8 – had exited the Japanese market just a few months earlier in March of the same year, after struggling to establish itself for six years.

Despite its troubles with Seiyu, Wal-Mart also made a bid to acquire Japan’s fourth largest retailer Daeiei in 2004, when it was being restructured through a bailout. However, Wal-Mart’s bid for Daeiei was rejected in September 2005, dealing a big blow to its expansion plans in Japan. Had the bid been successful, Wal-Mart could have emerged as the second largest retailer in Japan after Ito Yokado.

In 1962, Sam Walton (Walton) and his brother James Lawrence “Bud” Walton opened the first Wal-Mart store in Rogers (Arkansas), USA. In the first year of its operations, the store registered sales of over $1 million. Initially, the Waltons concentrated on opening stores in small towns and introduced innovative concepts such as self-service. By 1967, Wal-Mart had 24 stores with sales of $12.6 million.

Encouraged by the early success of Wal-Mart, Walton expanded Wal-Mart’s operations to Oklahoma and Missouri in 1968. In the following year, Wal-Mart was incorporated as a company under the name Wal-Mart Stores Inc. In 1970, Wal-Mart established its first distribution center in Bentonville, Arkansas. The same year, it was also traded for the first time as a public limited company in over the counter9 stock trading. In 1972, Wal-Mart was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Wal-Mart continued to grow in the 1970s, benefiting from its highly automated distribution system, which reduced shipping costs and time, and its computerized inventory system, which speeded up the checkout and reordering of stocks.

By 1975, there were 125 Wal-Mart stores in operation with sales of $340.3 million and 7,500 employees. The famous ‘Wal-Mart Cheer’ was introduced by Walton in the same year to foster cooperation and team spirit among employees (Refer Exhibit II for the Wal-Mart Cheer). In 1978, Wal-Mart purchased the Hutcheson Shoe Company, and later set up pharmacy, auto service center, and jewelry divisions.

By 1980, Wal-Mart had 276 stores with annual sales of $1.4 billion and by 1984 the number of stores increased to 640 with annual sales of $4.5 billion and profits of over $200 million. In the 1980s, strong customer demand in small towns led to the rapid growth of Wal-Mart.

Wal-Mart succeeded in smaller towns because it offered low prices and catered to the specific needs of small towns. It offered the kinds of products that were most in demand by customers and fixed the store’s business hours according to its customers’ convenience. This made Wal-Mart more popular than the local stores which offered limited selection and had high mark-ups…

In early 1990s, Wal-Mart announced that it would go global. It wanted to look for international markets for the following reasons:

» Wal-Mart was facing stiff competition from K-mart and Target , which had adopted aggressive expansion strategies and had started eating into Wal-Mart’s market share.

» Although Wal-Mart had the scope to expand in the US, it was becoming difficult for the company to sustain its double digit growth rate. Wal-Mart was suffering from soft sales and rising inventories, especially in respect of its Sam’s Club divisions.

» Wal-Mart also realized that the US population represented only 4% of the world’s population and confining itself to the US market would mean missing the opportunity to tap potentially vast markets elsewhere.

» In the early 1990s, globalization and liberalization opened up new markets and created opportunities for discount stores such as Wal-Mart across the world.

During the first five years of its globalization initiative (1991-1995), Wal-Mart concentrated on Mexico, Canada, Argentina and Brazil, which were close to its home market.

It started with Canada and Mexico due to the similarities in people’s habits, culture and the business environments in these countries and also because the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) made it easier for US companies to enter these markets.

Wal-Mart’s decision to enter Argentina and Brazil was based on the high growth rates of the Latin American markets…

In the 1990s, real estate prices in Japan declined, prompting many foreign retailers to enter the country. Wal-Mart started exploring the Japanese market in 1997. Other major foreign retailers Costco and Carrefour entered the Japanese market in 1998 and 1999 respectively (Refer Table V for foreign retailers in Japan). Costco and Carrefour entered Japan without a local partner and faced difficulties from the very beginning. This convinced Wal-Mart that it should partner with a Japanese company so as to enable it to understand the peculiarities of the Japanese market…

Wal-Mart and Seiyu identified IT and distribution as the key areas for reforming the retail business of Seiyu. During 2002-03, Wal-Mart also conducted extensive focus group researches and studied retailers in Japan so that it could apply this insight to the management of Seiyu’s stores. Seiyu launched a five-year plan in December 2002, called as the “New Seiyu”program. Through this Seiyu wanted to implement the best practices offered by the Wal-Mart model. In line with the above program, in August 2003, Seiyu began the roll out of Wal-Mart’s store information system called as “Smart System”.

As of 2005, Seiyu said that it did not hope to make any profits till 2006. The opening of the next Super Center would also be taken up only after 2006. The company had realized that it was not able to cut costs enough to allow it to offer really heavy discounts necessary to make customers shop regularly at its stores.

In Japan, as compared to the US market, Wal-Mart was still to achieve big efficiencies by leveraging Retail Link and increasing its purchasing. As Marra remarked, “In the U.S., Wal-Mart’s information technology and huge buying power allows the company to undercut rivals by some 15% across the board…

Question 1: Foreign retailers ____ and Carrefour entered the Japanese market in 1998 and 1999

Select one:

a. Zoomberg

b. Costco

c. Both a & b

d. All of the above

Question 2

Seiyu began the roll out of Wal-Mart’s store information system called as ______

Select one:

a. Technical zone

b. Tricky system

c. Both a & B

d. Smart System

Question 3

Wal-Mart also made a bid to acquire Japan’s fourth largest retailer ____in 2004,

Select one:

a. Zooiai

b. Chingai

c. Buzferrr

d. Daeiei

Question 4

Wal-Mart Stores Inc. (Wal-Mart) entered ___ in March 2002

Select one:

a. Korea

b. Japan

c. Russia

d. Europe

Question 5

Wal-Mart succeeded in smaller towns because it offered ___ and catered to the specific needs of small towns

Select one:

a. low prices

b. High Prices

c. Both a & B

d. None of the above

Question 6

Wal-Mart was facing stiff competition from K-mart and ____

Select one:

a. Local Players

b. National Players

c. Both a & b

d. Target

Question 7

Wal-Mart was listed on the _____

Select one:

a. Europe Markets

b. US Markets

c. New York Stock Exchange.

d. Bombay Stock Exchange

Question 8

Wal-Mart’s decision to enter Argentina and Brazil was based on the ___ growth rates of the Latin American markets

Select one:

a. Medium

b. Low

c. high

d. All of the above

Question 9

Wal-Mart’s information technology and huge buying power allows the company to undercut rivals by some ____ across the board…

Select one:

a. 15%

b. 12%

c. 10%

d. 14%

Question 10

Walton expanded Wal-Mart’s operations to Oklahoma and Missouri in ___

Select one:

a. 1968

b. 1984

c. 1965

d. 1986

10/10

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2nd Module Assessment

In January 2004, leading global automobile company and Japan’s number one automaker, Toyota Motor Corporation (Toyota), replaced Ford Motors (Ford), as the world’s second largest automobile manufacturer; Ford had been in that spot for over seven decades. In 2003, Toyota sold 6.78 million vehicles worldwide while Ford’s worldwide sales amounted to 6.72 million vehicles (General Motors, the world’s largest car manufacturer sold 8.60 million vehicles).

According to reports, while Toyota’s market share in the US increased from 10.4% in 2002 to 11.2% in 2003, Ford’s declined from 21.5% to 20.8% during the same period. Reaching the No.2 slot was a major achievement for Toyota, which had begun as a spinning and weaving company in 1918. Ford was reportedly plagued by high labor costs, quality-control problems, lack of new designs and innovations, and a weak economy during the early 21st century, which made it vulnerable to competition. Toyota, aided by its new product offerings and strong financial muscle had successfully used this scenario to surpass Ford and affect a dramatic increase in its sales figures. In November 2003, Toyota announced its financial results for the half-year ended September 30, 2003.

The company reported a 23% increase in net income (as compared to the corresponding period of the previous year) to $4.4 billion on revenues of $69.7 billion. This took Toyota way ahead of World’s top three automobile makers (at that time) by sales, General Motors (GM), Ford Motors (Ford) and Daimler Chrysler. Its market capitalization of $110 billion (on November 05, 2003) was more than the combined market capitalization of these three players. (See Table I).

Given the fact that in 2003, these top three companies were struggling to maintain their sales and profitability targets, Toyota’s performance was termed remarkable by industry observers (See Exhibit I for the company’s financials). Toyota had emerged as a formidable player in almost all the major automobile markets in the world. Interestingly, one of its strongest markets was the US, the world’s largest automobile market and the home turf of Ford and GM. Toyota had emerged as a strong foreign player in Europe as well, with a 4.4% market share. In China, which the company had identified as a strategic market for growth in the early 21st century, it had a 1.5% market share.

The other major markets in which the company was fast strengthening its presence were South America, Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia and Africa.3 Back home in Japan, it enjoyed a market share of over 43%. Analysts attributed Toyota’s growing sales across the world to its aggressive globalization efforts that began in the mid-1990s.

The company constantly strived to ensure that each of its market segments – Japan, North America, and Europe and other markets – generated one-third of the annual sales (See Exhibits II and III for revenues and revenue growth data in its core markets). This goal was at the heart of Toyota’s three globalization programs – New Global Business Plan (1995-1998), Global Vision 2005 (1996-2005) and Global Vision 2010 (2002-2010). In the light of Toyota’s intensifying globalization efforts, Toyota’s competitors themselves stated that Toyota could not be taken lightly. GM’s Chairman, John F. Smith Jr., said, “I would not say they will not make it. Toyota is an excellent company. They are very focused on what they do and they do it well, and that is what makes them great.”4

Toyota’s history dates back to 1897, when Japan’s Sakichi Toyoda (Sakichi) diversified from his traditional family business of carpentry into handloom machinery. He founded Toyoda Automatic Loom Works (TALW) in 1926 for manufacturing automatic looms. Sakichi invented a loom that stopped automatically when any of the threads snapped.

This concept (designing equipment to stop so that defects could be fixed immediately) formed the basis of the Toyota Production System (TPS) and later became a major factor in the company’s success. In 1933, Sakichi established an automobile department within TALW and the first passenger car prototype was developed in 1935. Sakichi’s son, Kiichiro Toyoda (Kiichiro), convinced him to enter the automobile business, and this led to the establishment of Toyota in 1937. During a visit to Ford to study the US automotive industry, Kiichiro saw that an average US worker’s production was nine times that of an average Japanese worker. He realized that to compete globally, the Japanese automobile industry’s productivity had to be increased…

In June 1995, Toyota announced the ‘New Global Business Plan,’ aimed at advancing localization (of production) and increasing imports (through collaboration with foreign automobile companies) over a three year period. A major objective of this plan was to increase Toyota’s offshore production capacity to 2 million units by 1998.

As part of the localization efforts, Toyota focused on increasing overseas production significantly by establishing new plants and expanding the capacity of the existing plants (See Table II for major initiatives taken under the New Global Business Plan).

Apart from this short-term global business plan, Toyota also came up with a long-term global business vision in June 1996, named the ‘Global Vision 2005.’ The major components of “Global Vision 2005″were, asserting a competitive edge in technology and accelerating globalization, while sustaining market leadership in Japan, by reclaiming its above 40% market share.

As part of its globalization efforts, the company focused more on increasing the production of automobiles in the areas where they were sold…

According to industry observers, the above scenario was due to a host of reasons such as excessive capacity, choosy customers, surplus workforce and intensified competition within Japan. In 1998, Japan sales accounted for a mere 38% of the company’s total sales, as compared to 52% in 1990.

Also, Toyota’s Japan sales contributed to a very small share of its total profits. US sales contributed to the majority share (80%) of the profits, followed by Europe. By the late 1990s; young buyers accounted for 30% of the customer base as compared to over 45% in the late 1980s. In 1998, models from rival companies such as Honda and BMW were more popular than the ones offered by Toyota. According to reports, Japanese youngsters felt that Toyota cars ‘lacked attitude.’ Toyota realized that by losing its young customers to other companies, it ran the risk of losing its future market as well. Analysts claimed that despite its efforts to cater to the young, the company had failed to give them zippy compact minivans and sports utility vehicles…

Cho decided to focus more on localization – he believed that by doing so, Toyota would be able to provide its customers with the products they needed, where they needed them. This was expected to help build mutually benefiting, long-term relationships with local suppliers and fulfill Toyota’s commitments to local labor and communities. Cho defined globalization as ‘global localization.’ Therefore, besides focusing on increasing the number of manufacturing centers and expanding the sales networks worldwide, Toyota also focused on localizing design, development and purchasing in every region and country…

In April 2002, Toyota announced another corporate strategy to boost its globalization efforts.

This initiative, termed the ‘2010 Global Vision’ was aimed at achieving a 15% market share (from the prevailing 10%) of the global automobile market by early 2010, exceeding the 14.2% market share held by the leader GM.

The theme of the new vision was ‘Innovation into the Future,’ which focused on four key components: Recycling Based Society; Age of Information Technology; Development of Motorization on a Global Sale; and Diverse Society (See Table III)…

By mid-2003, Toyota was present in almost all the major segments of the automobile market that included small cars, luxury sedans, full-sized pickup trucks, SUVs, small trucks and crossover vehicles. According to reports, while global vehicle production increased by 3.3 times since the early 1960s, Toyota’s production had increased by 38 times. As a result of its localization initiatives, Toyota had 45 manufacturing plants in 26 countries and regions by this time, and sold vehicles in 160 countries

By the end of 2003, Toyota seemed to be well on its way to achieving its globalization goals – worldwide sales of 6.57 million units in fiscal 2004; sales of 2.12 million units in North America by 2004; a 5% market share (800,000 units sales) in Europe by 2004; a 15% market share in the global market and a 10% market share in China by 2010.

Analysts felt that the following factors were helping the company in its quest to become a truly global automobile major: strong financial condition, globally efficient production system, unique corporate culture, and the ability to develop a product range that met the unique needs and desires of customers in different regions…

Question 1: 2010 Global Vision’ was aimed at achieving a___ market share

Select one:

a. 12%

b. 13%

c. 15%

d. 18%

Question 2

company focused more on ____ the production of automobiles

Select one:

a. Decreasing

b. increasing

c. Both a & b

d. None of the above

Question 3

Japanese youngsters felt that Toyota cars ___

Select one:

a. Expensive

b. Outdated

c. Both a & b

d. lacked attitude

Question 4

major objective of this plan was to increase Toyota’s offshore production capacity to 2 million units by___

Select one:

a. 1997

b. 1999

c. 2001

d. 1998

Question 5

The theme of the new vision was Innovation into the __

Select one:

a. Future

b. Present

c. Past

d. Both a & b

Question 6

Toyota had 45 manufacturing plants in ___ countries

Select one:

a. 45

b. 23

c. 26

d. 34

Question 7

Toyota Motor Corporation (Toyota), replaced Ford Motors (Ford), as the world’s ___ largest automobile manufacturer

Select one:

a. second

b. Third

c. First

d. Fourth

Question 8

Toyota seemed to be well on its way to achieving its _____goals

Select one:

a. globalization

b. Organizational

c. Both a & b

d. None of the above

Question 9

Toyota way ahead of World’s top three automobile makers by sales, General Motors (GM), Ford Motors (Ford) and ____.

Select one:

a. Toyota

b. Bugaati

c. Daimler Chrysler

d. All of the above

Question 10

_____invented a loom that stopped automatically when any of the threads snapped.

Select one:

a. Zaikuu

b. Sakichi

c. qashiin

d. All of the above

10/10

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3rd Module Assessment

In July 2003, Saudi British Bank (SABB), the Saudi Arabian associate of global financial services and banking major HSBC, won two prestigious international awards at the annualEuromoney 1 ‘Awards for Excellence 2003’ ceremony held in London. SABB was adjudged the ‘Best Bank’ and the ‘Best Equities House’ in recognition of its value added customer services and banking products.

The company was lauded as the most innovative banking products and services provider in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. SABB Chairman Sheikh Abdullah Mohammed Al-Hugail was of the opinion that the award represented the recognition of the bank’s customer-first policy, “The recognition conferred on SABB is a reflection of the emphasis placed on providing high quality service to its customers, which has always been its top priority.”2 Geoff Calvert (Calvert), Managing Director, SABB said that the awards were, “A recognition of the bank’s efforts across a broad spectrum of areas, including customer service, recruiting and training Saudis to use state-of-the-art technology that facilitates a wide range of financial products and services.”3

SABB was also applauded for the successful execution of Saudi Telecommunication Company’s (STC) initial public offering (IPO). Reportedly, SABB was entrusted with this task by the Public Investment Fund (PIF), the investment division of the Ministry of Finance, Saudi Arabia, because of its technical capabilities and industry expertise. SABB was also the top broker on the Saudi Stock Exchange in 2002. Many industry observers felt that no other bank in Saudi Arabia matched HSBC’s expertise in offering localized financial services/products.

In fact, it was its customer-centric product development policy that helped HSBC establish itself firmly in the Saudi Arabian banking industry through SABB. The bank’s impressive financial performance over the years stood as a testimony to its success (Refer Exhibit I for SABB’s financial highlights for the period 1998-2002). SABB posted a net profit of SAR (Saudi Riyal4) 565 million during the six month period ended June 30, 2003. The bank recorded an increase of 16.1% over the income earned during the corresponding period in 2002 (SAR 487 million). Customer deposits at the bank also increased from SAR 33.1 billion on June 30, 2002 to SAR 36.5 billion on June 30, 2003 (Refer Exhibit II for details).

HSBC’s origins can be traced back to 1865, when Thomas Sutherland, the Hong Kong Superintendent of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, realized the need for local banking facilities in China and Hong Kong. The bank was established as The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited in March 1865 with support from investors from Hong Kong, American, European and Indian firms. Offices were opened in both Shanghai and London in April 1865. In 1866, the bank formally adopted the name HSBC.

During the rest of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the bank expanded rapidly in the Asia-Pacific region through organic growth as well as by entering into various strategic alliances. HSBC opened branches in Japan (in 1866, where it acted as a banking advisor to the government), Thailand (in 1888, where it printed the country’s first banknotes), India (1867), Philippines (1875), Singapore (1877) and other geographical locations which are now recognized as Malaysia, Burma, Vietnam and Sri Lanka. By the 1880s, HSBC became the banker for the Hong Kong Government and the only joint banker for British accounts in Japan, Singapore, China and Penang.

By 1902, HSBC had become the foremost financial institution in Asia and was regarded as the pioneer of modern banking practices in the Asia-Pacific region.

In spite of the disruption caused by the First World War to international trade, HSBC prospered and continued expanding within Asia. It opened new branches in Bangkok (1921), Manila (1922) and Shanghai (1923).

In 1946, after the Second World War, HSBC played an important role in reconstructing the Hong Kong economy.

HSBC’s support to skilled and experienced entrepreneurs contributed greatly to the revival of the manufacturing sector in Hong Kong. By the mid-1950s, HSBC’s total assets stood at HK$36 billion (Hong Kong Dollar). However, the company’s board realized that HSBC’s future growth prospects would be limited if it restricted its operations to Hong Kong and China. Thus, HSBC decided to diversify both its business and its geographical spread through a series of acquisitions and alliances. From 1953 onwards, HSBC expanded its operations mainly by acquiring other banks and forming alliances

HSBC’s decision to enter the Gulf region was a part of the group’s thrust on globalization in the 1950s. In 1959, the company commenced its operations in the Middle East by purchasing the British Bank of the Middle East. Originally known as the Imperial Bank of Persia, the British Bank of Middle East had pioneered banking operations in several Gulf regions during the 1940s and 1950s.

HSBC renamed the company HSBC Bank Middle East Limited. After this, HSBC began operating in places such as Aden, Libya, Sharjah, Qatar, Tunisia, Abu Dhabi, Morocco and Saudi Arabia. During the 1960s, the banking industry in the Middle East was going through a phase of nationalization. As a result of this, HSBC had to close operations in Aden, Libya, Syria and Iraq. However, the company reinforced its branch network in the oil rich countries and formed new alliances with local banks. In 1978, HSBC established the Saudi British Bank (SABB) as a joint stock company under Saudi Arabia’s royal decree. SABB was formed to take over the British Bank of Middle East’s branches in Saudi Arabia…

From 2000 onwards, SABB introduced several innovative products and services to compete with large-sized banks in the kingdom. The new Islamic banking products and services it offered were in line with the government’s policy of ‘Saudisation,’ which was aimed at encouraging the Islamic way of doing business and creating more employment/business opportunities for Saudi nationals.

In July 2000, SABB introduced ATMs in Riyadh and Makkah for the convenience of visually impaired customers. The first of its kind in Saudi Arabia, these ATMs allowed visually impaired customers to conduct transactions independently with complete privacy and security. In November 2000, SABB launched financial planning services which were similar to insurance policies. The bank offered two plans, Al Amal and Al Manar, aimed at helping customers plan for their future financial security. Under Al Amal, customers could take a policy for a specific amount for a specific duration. They paid a specified premium to the bank, which was credited to an Education and Protection fund. The amount in this fund was withdrawn by the customer at the maturity of the policy or after death, whichever occurred earlier…

SABB’s efforts towards introducing a new, unique banking experience to Saudi Arabian customers were rewarded not only through improved financials but also through growing clout in the country’s business scenario.

In 2002, SABB was ranked 10th among the top 100 companies in Saudi Arabia, an improvement from its 12th rank in 2000(Refer Exhibit V).

Industry observers said that this achievement was indeed noteworthy since SABB was the only bank from the medium-sized category to feature in the top 10 list.

A customer survey conducted by SABB in early-2003 revealed that the Islamic banking products and services launched through the Al Amanah Banking division were very well received and enhanced customer satisfaction.

This prompted the company to launch more such products: the Al Tomooh Account (May 2003) and the Al Mutamayazah Gold program (June 2003).

The Al Tamooh Account was a savings account designed for children below 18 years. Though children could not operate these accounts, they were issued ATM cards on request, with appropriate guidance from guardians…

Question 1: Al Amal, customers could take a policy for a specific ___ for a specific duration.

Select one:

a. amount

b. Time

c. Both a & b

d. None of the above

Question 2

Al Amanah ___ were very well received and enhanced customer satisfaction.

Select one:

a. Garments

b. Food

c. Both a & b

d. Banking division

Question 3

HSBC had become the foremost financial institution in ____

Select one:

a. Asia

b. Russia

c. Paris

d. Germany

Question 4

SABB Chairman Sheikh Abdullah Mohammed ___

Select one:

a. Al-Hugail

b. Mubaraq

c. Both a & b

d. All of the above

Question 5

SABB introduced ATMs in Riyadh and Makkah for the convenience of ______customers

Select one:

a. Blind

b. Deaf

c. visually impaired

d. All of the above

Question 6

SABB launched financial planning services which were similar to __ policies.

Select one:

a. Other State

b. National

c. Both a & b

d. insurance

Question 7

SABB was also applauded for the successful execution of Saudi Telecommunication Company’s (STC) _____

Select one:

a. Uganmmm

b. Marjinaah

c. initial public offering (IPO)

d. Riyaadh

Question 8

SABB was formed to take over the _____of Middle East’s branches in Saudi Arabia.

Select one:

a. WTO

b. British Bank

c. European Bank

d. Asian Bank

Question 9

The Al Tamooh Account was a savings account designed for children below ____

Select one:

a. 15 years

b. 18 years

c. 14 years

d. 21 years

Question 10

____was aimed at encouraging the Islamic way of doing business and creating more employment/business opportunities for Saudi nationals.

Select one:

a. Policies

b. Saudisation

c. Globalization

d. None of the above

10/10

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4th Module Assessment

In early 2004, Bumrungrad Hospital Public Company Limited (Bumrungrad) in Bangkok (Thailand) was named the ‘Best Small Cap Company,’ by the Singapore-based magazine Asiamoney.

The award was given on the basis of a 2003 poll conducted on more than 3000 fund managers, chief investment officers and heads of research at fund management firms, insurance companies and brokerage houses in the Southeast Asian region.

Bumrungrad (market capitalization of under US$500 mn) was selected from over 180 companies considered for the award.

On Bumrungrad’s remarkable achievements, Philip Owens, the Managing Director and Publisher of Asiamoney said, “This represents the first time that this award has been made to a hospital company in the twelve-year history of the poll.

One glance at our best-managed companies on our 2003 poll reveals that they have one talent in common – the ability to recover fast. Bumrungrad Hospital in Thailand certainly fits this description with its remarkable success story.”

On receiving this honor, Curtis Schroeder (Schroeder), CEO of Bumrungrad said, “We’re very happy to be recognized in this year’s poll.

Bumrungrad has made a remarkable recovery from the dark days of the Asian economic crisis through an effective restructuring and has emerged as the dominant regional player in the Southeast Asian healthcare care market for cost-effective international medical care.

This award is a wonderful capstone to the efforts of our management and employees.”4 Believed to be Southeast Asia’s largest privately managed hospital, the 554-bed Bumrungrad Hospital treats both Thai nationals and foreign patients. The hospital is becoming increasingly popular with foreign patients. In 2002, out of the 850,000 patients treated in Bumrungrad, there were 250,000 foreign patients, coming from over 130 countries across the world.

Since the mid-1990s, Bumrungrad has come a long way to emerge as a leading healthcare brand in the world. In 1997, when Thailand was hit by the Southeast Asian currency crisis5, Bumrungrad was among the several healthcare companies in Thailand that were severely affected. A vast majority of Thai patients moved away from private hospitals to government-run ones. However, Bumrungrad perceived this adverse situation as an opportunity for growth and followed an aggressive marketing strategy that targeted foreign patients to the hospital. Though Bumrungrad has been largely successful through its focus on foreign patients since mid-1997, the hospital faces a few important challenges in early 2004.

Bumrungrad faces fierce competition from leading hospitals in Thailand and other neighboring countries like Singapore and India, which are targeting the same clients by offering similar world-class healthcare facilities. Bumrungrad, therefore, has to discover new ways and means to differentiate its healthcare services from those of its competitors.

Established in September 1980, Bumrungrad6was initially a 200-bed facility. The initial investment for setting up the hospital was Thai Baht7 90 mn.

The hospital was jointly owned by Bangkok Bank and the Sophonpanich family, one of Thailand’s leading business families.

In 1989, ungrad went public and its shares were listed on the Thai Stock Exchange. Over the next decade, Bumrungrad adopted several innovative practices to emerge as the best privately managed hospital in Thailand.

The significant increase in the number of domestic patients in its care over the years led to many fold increase in its revenues. In January 1997, Bumrungrad shifted to its new facility located at the centre of Bangkok. Constructed at an estimated cost of $110 mn ($60 mn raised through offshore loans), the 12-floor building had 554 beds and 21 operation theatres…

In the late 1990s, Bumrungrad participated in an international road show organized by the export promotion department of Thailand commerce ministry. It was around this time that Thailand began promoting medical tourism as an ‘export’ product – one which could earn valuable foreign currency for the country (Refer Exhibit I for the medical tourism industry scenario in Thailand).

Soon, Bumrungrad opened representative offices in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam), Yangon (Burma), Dhaka (Bangladesh) and Laos (Cambodia).

The offices provided assistance to foreigners, helping them to procure visas and make travel arrangements, and providing cost estimates to patients intending to get treated.

They even coordinated arrangements for picking up and dropping off patients at Bangkok airport with the Bumrungrad hospital staff. Sales representatives were sent to other Asian countries to create awareness and promote Bumrungrad…

Bumrungrad had a western-style ambience in the hospital to woo foreign patients. The lobby of the hospital resembled a five-star hotel, with a ceiling as high as two floors, teak pillars and plush sofas and armchairs. Attractive oriental carpets covered the marble floors, while flowering trees and shrubs were tastefully arranged around…

Well-planned pricing was a major contributor to Bumrungrad’s success. The healthcare costs at Bumrungrad were significantly cheaper than those at similar medical facilities at Hong Kong, Singapore and the US

On the importance of pricing, Schroeder said, “If you’re flying several thousand miles, the issue is the combination of quality and price. As long as quality is held to be as good or better, price is the most compelling factor.” The room rent included nursing care and general medical services….

By 2002, Bumrungrad’s strategy of wooing foreigners reaped rich dividends with the hospital witnessing more than three-fold growth in the number of foreign patients between 1997 and By 1999, foreign patients accounted for 28% of its total customers compared to 11% before the 1997 crisis…

In February 2003, Bumrungrad opened an outpatient pediatric centre, called Kids’ Village. Constructed at an estimated cost of 20 mn Baht, the centre was the largest children’s medical care center in Thailand.

The center aimed to attract 30,000 children per month compared to the current influx of nearly 10,000 children every month. The centre had 48 qualified pediatricians, representing different pediatric disciplines such as allergy, nephrology, endocrinology, psychiatry and so on.

The center offered several medical services in a kid-friendly environment as it was painted with blue skies, clouds, etc. and had colorful treatment rooms and an entrance center, to make kids feel relaxed.

It had a Well-Baby center, with a separate entrance and waiting room for kids with immunizations and who were likely to be sick…

With its state-of-the-art medical and other infrastructural facilities and its world class healthcare services standards, by early 2004, Bumrungrad has emerged as one of the best-managed hospitals in the world.

Having achieved this remarkable growth in its business resulting in significantly improved financial performance over the past five years, Bumrungrad’s main challenge will be to sustain this growth in future, especially in the light of tough competition from local players in Thailand as well as hospitals from other emerging healthcare destinations in the world (Refer Table IV).

In 2004, Bumrungrad faces tough competition from local players, who are upgrading their services and infrastructural facilities to be on par with those at Bumrungrad. Industry analysts say that it may not be difficult to imitate the unique services offered by Bumrungrad…

Question 1: Bumrungrad faces tough competition from _____

Select one:

a. Globalized players

b. National Competitors

c. local players

d. All of the above

Question 2

Bumrungrad had a ______ ambience in the hospital

Select one:

a. European

b. Russian style

c. both a & b

d. western-style

Question 3

Bumrungrad has come a long way to emerge as a leading ____brand in the world.

Select one:

a. healthcare

b. Food zone

c. Mobile

d. None of the above

Question 4

Bumrungrad has made a remarkable recovery from the dark days of the ____ economic crisis

Select one:

a. Asian

b. German

c. Indonesian

d. South African

Question 5

Bumrungrad Hospital Public Company Limited (Bumrungrad) in Bangkok (Thailand) was named the ____ by the Singapore-based magazine Asiamoney

Select one:

a. Small Force

b. Justice premise

c. both a & b

d. Best Small Cap Company

Question 6

Bumrungrad Hospital treats both ___ nationals and foreign patients

Select one:

a. Europe

b. US

c. UK

d. Thai

Question 7

Bumrungrad opened representative offices in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam), Yangon (Burma), _____ and Laos (Cambodia).

Select one:

a. Dhaka (Bangladesh)

b. Nepal

c. both a & b

d. None of the above

Question 8

Thailand began promoting medical tourism as an _____product

Select one:

a. Unique

b. National

c. ‘export’

d. Import

Question 9

_____CEO of Bumrungrad

Select one:

a. Dr. Ranaio

b. Curtis Schroeder (Schroeder)

c. James

d. None of the above

Question 10

_____was a major contributor to Bumrungrad’s success.

Select one:

a. Marketing

b. Well-planned pricing

c. Advertisement

d. None of the above

10/10

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5th Module Assessment

From January 1, 2006, the University of Michigan in the US put on hold the sale of the products of The Coca-Cola Company (Coca-Cola) in all its campuses, thus becoming the tenth US University to do so. The ban was the outcome of a relentless campaign by student activists and trade union groups, who accused Coca-Cola of violent labor practices in Colombia and of creating environmental problems in India.

The University of Michigan issued the orders for the ban based on the recommendation of its University Dispute Board. This was following the inability of Coca-Cola to meet the deadline of December 31, 2005 that required agreeing on a protocol on the findings of the commission formed by a set of universities in the US.

The commission had offered to investigate the company’s labor practices and that of its bottlers in Colombia.

Coca-Cola did not want the findings of the commission to have any legal consequences but the attorneys in an earlier lawsuit against Coca-Cola and its bottlers in Colombia insisted that the findings should be legally admissible in court of law in the US.

Other prominent US universities that had banned Coca-Cola on similar grounds were the New York University, the largest private university in the US, Rutgers University in New Jersey, and the Santa Clara University in California. The University of Michigan and The New York University were Coca-Cola’s largest campus markets in the US.

 Coca-Cola’s annual contracts with the University of Michigan, which had over 50,000 students, were worth around US$ 1.4 million in sales in 2005. The campaign by student activists and trade union groups to ban Coca-Cola had been going on for several years in different countries. Coca-Cola was accused, along with its bottling partners, of hiring paramilitary death squads in Colombia to kidnap, intimidate, or kill its union leaders and other workers at its bottling plants. Since 1989, around eight union leaders of Coca-Cola’s plants in Colombia had been murdered and many others abducted and tortured. In India, Coca-Cola had to face opposition from the local people around its factory in Plachimada, Kerala,4 who charged that the company was responsible for the draining of the underground water table.

In 2003, a BBC5 report revealed that Coca-Cola was distributing improperly treated sludge containing toxic carcinogens and heavy metals like cadmium and lead, as fertilizer to farmers in the region. Coca-Cola shut down this plant in March 2004 owing to mounting pressure. The company then decided to shift its operations to a nearby industrial zone, the Kanjikode Industrial Area.

There were also protests at Coca-Cola’s Mehdiganj plant in North India over similar issues. In addition to these accusations, in 2003, the Center for Science and Environment (CSE),6 made public the findings of its study wherein it reported that the products of both Coca-Cola and PepsiCo Inc. (Pepsi) that were sold in India, had a cocktail of harmful pesticide residues in them.

In an official statement, Coca-Cola denied that it had used death squads in Colombia. The company said that two judicial investigations in the country had not found any evidence in support of such allegations. Coca-Cola also claimed that there was no evidence linking it or its bottlers with the groundwater problems at its factory locations in India…

The Coca-Cola drink, popularly referred to as ‘Coke’, is a kind of cola, a sweet carbonated7 drink containing caramel8 and other flavoring agents. It was invented by Dr. John Smith Pemberton (Pemberton) on May 8, 1886, at Atlanta, Georgia in USA.

 The beverage was named Coca-Cola because at that time it contained extracts of Coca leaves and Kola nuts.9 Frank M. Robinson (Robinson), Pemberton’s book-keeper and partner, who came up with the name for the drink, suggested that it be spelt Coca-Cola rather than Coca-Kola because he thought the two C’s would look better while advertising. Robinson designed the now world famous Coca-Cola trademark as well. Pemberton later sold the business to a group of businessmen, one of whom was Griggs Candler (Candler). By 1888, several forms of Coca-Cola were in the market competing against each other. Candler acquired these businesses from the other businessmen and established The Coca-Cola Company in 1892. He aggressively marketed the product through advertising, distribution of coupons and souvenirs, and promoted the brand name Coca-Cola…

Coca-Cola had always believed that it conducted its business with responsibility and ethics. The company’s business practices were aimed at creating value at the marketplace, providing excellent working conditions, protecting the environment, and strengthening the communities in the places of operation.

Commitment to quality and a code of business conduct were evolved to ensure good business practices. According to Coca-Cola, its commitment to quality was reflected in every facet of its business. These included commitment to product quality, quality in business processes, and in its relationships with suppliers and retailers.

The quality system was reviewed constantly so that the performance bar for these standards was always kept high. The quality guidelines were communicated to all business units and their implementation reviewed. The company introduced the Coca-Cola Quality System (TCCQS) to achieve these quality objectives (

Colombia is widely considered as one of the most dangerous countries in the world for trade union activists and union leaders. The country was in the midst of a four-decade-old civil war involving leftist guerrillas, right-wing paramilitary groups, and government forces.

 The civil war claimed approximately three thousand lives a year including those of many trade union leaders and workers. It was reported that in 2000, three out of every five trade unionists killed in the world were from Colombia. In 2001, SINALTRAINAL, a Colombian labor union, charged that Coca-Cola and its bottlers Panamerican Beverages (Panamaco), Bebidas y Alimentos De Uraba, and Coca-Cola Femsa, were linked to the violence against its union members in Colombia. Around eight union leaders of Coca-Cola’s plants in Colombia had been murdered since 1989, and many others had been abducted and tortured. Coca-Cola was accused of hiring paramilitary death squads to kidnap, torture, or kill union leaders and intimidate worker union activists at its bottling plants…

Mexico was a very important market for Coca-Cola as the country was second, after the US, in terms of per capita consumption of soft drinks in the world. The Mexican market for soft drinks was estimated at US$ 6.6 billion for the year 2004. Over the years, some of the highest profit margins for Coca-Cola in its overseas operations came from Mexico. Coca-Cola was the number one seller of soft drinks in Mexico with a 70% market share. Coca-Cola’s largest bottler in Mexico was Coca-Cola Femsa (CCF) in which Coca-Cola had a 40% stake…

In India, Coca-Cola was accused of draining the underground water table, of releasing improperly treated industrial effluents, and of selling products containing pesticide residues above standard limits. The focal point of the environmental accusations in India was the Coca-Cola plant located in Kerala. Coca-Cola, through its subsidiary in India, The Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd., had established a bottling plant at Plachimada locality in Palakkad district in Kerala.

The unit was established in 1998-99 in a 40-acre plot that had previously been used for irrigation of paddy and other food crops. The factory site was located in the proximity of a main irrigation canal that drew water from a nearby barrage and reservoir…

In July 2001, SINALTRAINAL, with the help of United Steelworkers of America (USWA) and the International Labor Rights Fund (ILRF), filed a lawsuit against Coca-Cola and its Colombian bottlers at a court in Miami, Florida, under the Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) of the American Judicial System. It accused them of being responsible for a campaign of murder and intimidation against its unionized workers and charged that it was using right wing paramilitary groups for the purpose. The US judge dismissed these charges against Coca-Cola in Colombia but approved the charges against the local bottlers in Colombia…

Coca-Cola opened an exclusive website, www.cokefacts.org, to address these allegations, especially those related to Colombia and India. In an official statement featured on the website, Coca-Cola claimed that the allegations against the business practices in Colombia were false.

Two different judicial enquiries in Colombia, one by a Colombian court and the other by the Colombia Attorney General, had found no evidence against Coca-Cola or its bottlers linking them to the murders of the union members.

Coca-Cola also quoted a judgment in the lawsuit at Miami, Florida, wherein the judge had dismissed the charges against Coca-Cola, Columbia…

Question 1: ____ was a very important market for Coca-Cola

Select one:

a. Mexico

b. US

c. UK

d. Both a & c

Question 2

Coca-Cola shut down this plant in March ___ owing to mounting pressure

Select one:

a. 2008

b. 2004

c. 2009

d. 2003

Question 3

 SINALTRAINAL, with the help of United Steelworkers of America (USWA) and the ______, filed a lawsuit against Coca-Cola

Select one:

a. Labour Welfare

b. Bank

c.  International Labor Rights Fund (ILRF)

d. All of the above

Question 4

Coca-Cola was the number one seller of soft drinks in Mexico with a ___market share.

Select one:

a. 56%

b. 67%

c. 235

d. 70%

Question 5

ATCA stands for ___

Select one:

a.  Alien Tort Claims Act

b. All Transport Casual accomodtaion

c. All Total cost accquisition

d. none of the above

Question 6

The factory site was located in the proximity of a main irrigation canal that drew water from a nearby  ____and reservoir.

Select one:

a. Palace

b. Barrage

c. River

d. Dam

Question 7

The Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd., had established a bottling plant at ____ locality in Palakkad district in Kerala.

Select one:

a. US

b. Asian Markets

c. Plachimada

d. Munnar

Question 8

 The company introduced  to ___ achieve these quality objectives

Select one:

a. Globalization

b. Technical Upgradation

c. Both a & b

d. the Coca-Cola Quality System (TCCQS)

Question 9

 Coca-Cola was accused of hiring ___ squads

Select one:

a. paramilitary death

b. New

c. Both a & b

d. all of the above

Question 10

 The ___ University were Coca-Cola’s largest campus markets in the US.

Select one:

a. UK

b. New York

c. Europe

d. US

10/10

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Assignment 2

From January 1, 2006, the University of Michigan in the US put on hold the sale of the products of The Coca-Cola Company (Coca-Cola) in all its campuses, thus becoming the tenth US University to do so. The ban was the outcome of a relentless campaign by student activists and trade union groups, who accused Coca-Cola of violent labor practices in Colombia and of creating environmental problems in India.

The University of Michigan issued the orders for the ban based on the recommendation of its University Dispute Board. This was following the inability of Coca-Cola to meet the deadline of December 31, 2005 that required agreeing on a protocol on the findings of the commission formed by a set of universities in the US.

The commission had offered to investigate the company’s labor practices and that of its bottlers in Colombia.

Coca-Cola did not want the findings of the commission to have any legal consequences but the attorneys in an earlier lawsuit against Coca-Cola and its bottlers in Colombia insisted that the findings should be legally admissible in court of law in the US.

Other prominent US universities that had banned Coca-Cola on similar grounds were the New York University, the largest private university in the US, Rutgers University in New Jersey, and the Santa Clara University in California. The University of Michigan and The New York University were Coca-Cola’s largest campus markets in the US.

 Coca-Cola’s annual contracts with the University of Michigan, which had over 50,000 students, were worth around US$ 1.4 million in sales in 2005. The campaign by student activists and trade union groups to ban Coca-Cola had been going on for several years in different countries. Coca-Cola was accused, along with its bottling partners, of hiring paramilitary death squads in Colombia to kidnap, intimidate, or kill its union leaders and other workers at its bottling plants. Since 1989, around eight union leaders of Coca-Cola’s plants in Colombia had been murdered and many others abducted and tortured. In India, Coca-Cola had to face opposition from the local people around its factory in Plachimada, Kerala,4 who charged that the company was responsible for the draining of the underground water table.

In 2003, a BBC5 report revealed that Coca-Cola was distributing improperly treated sludge containing toxic carcinogens and heavy metals like cadmium and lead, as fertilizer to farmers in the region. Coca-Cola shut down this plant in March 2004 owing to mounting pressure. The company then decided to shift its operations to a nearby industrial zone, the Kanjikode Industrial Area.

There were also protests at Coca-Cola’s Mehdiganj plant in North India over similar issues. In addition to these accusations, in 2003, the Center for Science and Environment (CSE),6 made public the findings of its study wherein it reported that the products of both Coca-Cola and PepsiCo Inc. (Pepsi) that were sold in India, had a cocktail of harmful pesticide residues in them.

In an official statement, Coca-Cola denied that it had used death squads in Colombia. The company said that two judicial investigations in the country had not found any evidence in support of such allegations. Coca-Cola also claimed that there was no evidence linking it or its bottlers with the groundwater problems at its factory locations in India…

The Coca-Cola drink, popularly referred to as ‘Coke’, is a kind of cola, a sweet carbonated7 drink containing caramel8 and other flavoring agents. It was invented by Dr. John Smith Pemberton (Pemberton) on May 8, 1886, at Atlanta, Georgia in USA.

 The beverage was named Coca-Cola because at that time it contained extracts of Coca leaves and Kola nuts.9 Frank M. Robinson (Robinson), Pemberton’s book-keeper and partner, who came up with the name for the drink, suggested that it be spelt Coca-Cola rather than Coca-Kola because he thought the two C’s would look better while advertising. Robinson designed the now world famous Coca-Cola trademark as well. Pemberton later sold the business to a group of businessmen, one of whom was Griggs Candler (Candler). By 1888, several forms of Coca-Cola were in the market competing against each other. Candler acquired these businesses from the other businessmen and established The Coca-Cola Company in 1892. He aggressively marketed the product through advertising, distribution of coupons and souvenirs, and promoted the brand name Coca-Cola…

Coca-Cola had always believed that it conducted its business with responsibility and ethics. The company’s business practices were aimed at creating value at the marketplace, providing excellent working conditions, protecting the environment, and strengthening the communities in the places of operation.

Commitment to quality and a code of business conduct were evolved to ensure good business practices. According to Coca-Cola, its commitment to quality was reflected in every facet of its business. These included commitment to product quality, quality in business processes, and in its relationships with suppliers and retailers.

The quality system was reviewed constantly so that the performance bar for these standards was always kept high. The quality guidelines were communicated to all business units and their implementation reviewed. The company introduced the Coca-Cola Quality System (TCCQS) to achieve these quality objectives (

Colombia is widely considered as one of the most dangerous countries in the world for trade union activists and union leaders. The country was in the midst of a four-decade-old civil war involving leftist guerrillas, right-wing paramilitary groups, and government forces.

 The civil war claimed approximately three thousand lives a year including those of many trade union leaders and workers. It was reported that in 2000, three out of every five trade unionists killed in the world were from Colombia. In 2001, SINALTRAINAL, a Colombian labor union, charged that Coca-Cola and its bottlers Panamerican Beverages (Panamaco), Bebidas y Alimentos De Uraba, and Coca-Cola Femsa, were linked to the violence against its union members in Colombia. Around eight union leaders of Coca-Cola’s plants in Colombia had been murdered since 1989, and many others had been abducted and tortured. Coca-Cola was accused of hiring paramilitary death squads to kidnap, torture, or kill union leaders and intimidate worker union activists at its bottling plants…

Mexico was a very important market for Coca-Cola as the country was second, after the US, in terms of per capita consumption of soft drinks in the world. The Mexican market for soft drinks was estimated at US$ 6.6 billion for the year 2004. Over the years, some of the highest profit margins for Coca-Cola in its overseas operations came from Mexico. Coca-Cola was the number one seller of soft drinks in Mexico with a 70% market share. Coca-Cola’s largest bottler in Mexico was Coca-Cola Femsa (CCF) in which Coca-Cola had a 40% stake…

In India, Coca-Cola was accused of draining the underground water table, of releasing improperly treated industrial effluents, and of selling products containing pesticide residues above standard limits. The focal point of the environmental accusations in India was the Coca-Cola plant located in Kerala. Coca-Cola, through its subsidiary in India, The Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd., had established a bottling plant at Plachimada locality in Palakkad district in Kerala.

The unit was established in 1998-99 in a 40-acre plot that had previously been used for irrigation of paddy and other food crops. The factory site was located in the proximity of a main irrigation canal that drew water from a nearby barrage and reservoir…

In July 2001, SINALTRAINAL, with the help of United Steelworkers of America (USWA) and the International Labor Rights Fund (ILRF), filed a lawsuit against Coca-Cola and its Colombian bottlers at a court in Miami, Florida, under the Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) of the American Judicial System. It accused them of being responsible for a campaign of murder and intimidation against its unionized workers and charged that it was using right wing paramilitary groups for the purpose. The US judge dismissed these charges against Coca-Cola in Colombia but approved the charges against the local bottlers in Colombia…

Coca-Cola opened an exclusive website, www.cokefacts.org, to address these allegations, especially those related to Colombia and India. In an official statement featured on the website, Coca-Cola claimed that the allegations against the business practices in Colombia were false.

Two different judicial enquiries in Colombia, one by a Colombian court and the other by the Colombia Attorney General, had found no evidence against Coca-Cola or its bottlers linking them to the murders of the union members.

Coca-Cola also quoted a judgment in the lawsuit at Miami, Florida, wherein the judge had dismissed the charges against Coca-Cola, Columbia…

Question 1: ____ was a very important market for Coca-Cola

Select one:

a. Mexico

b. US

c. UK

d. Both a & c

Question 2

Coca-Cola shut down this plant in March ___ owing to mounting pressure

Select one:

a. 2008

b. 2004

c. 2009

d. 2003

Question 3

 SINALTRAINAL, with the help of United Steelworkers of America (USWA) and the ______, filed a lawsuit against Coca-Cola

Select one:

a. Labour Welfare

b. Bank

c.  International Labor Rights Fund (ILRF)

d. All of the above

Question 4

Coca-Cola was the number one seller of soft drinks in Mexico with a ___market share.

Select one:

a. 56%

b. 67%

c. 235

d. 70%

Question 5

ATCA stands for ___

Select one:

a.  Alien Tort Claims Act

b. All Transport Casual accomodtaion

c. All Total cost accquisition

d. none of the above

Question 6

The factory site was located in the proximity of a main irrigation canal that drew water from a nearby  ____and reservoir.

Select one:

a. Palace

b. Barrage

c. River

d. Dam

Question 7

The Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd., had established a bottling plant at ____ locality in Palakkad district in Kerala.

Select one:

a. US

b. Asian Markets

c. Plachimada

d. Munnar

Question 8

 The company introduced  to ___ achieve these quality objectives

Select one:

a. Globalization

b. Technical Upgradation

c. Both a & b

d. the Coca-Cola Quality System (TCCQS)

Question 9

 Coca-Cola was accused of hiring ___ squads

Select one:

a. paramilitary death

b. New

c. Both a & b

d. all of the above

Question 10

 The ___ University were Coca-Cola’s largest campus markets in the US.

Select one:

a. UK

b. New York

c. Europe

d. US

10/10

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Accounting for Managers (ACCT602)-Semester I

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Accounting for Managers (ACCT602)-Semester I

1st Module Assessment

Question 1. Which one of the following can the accounting equation can be rewritten as?

Select one:

a. Assets + profit – drawings – liabilities = closing capital

b. Assets – liabilities – opening capital + drawings = profit

c. Assets – liabilities – drawings = opening capital + profit

d. Assets – profit – drawings = closing capital – liabilities

Clear my choice

Question 2. Accounting is basically concerned with

Select one:

a. Forecasting

b. Measurement

c. Management

d. None of the above

Clear my choice

Question 3. Which of the following is an example of Personal Account?

Select one:

a. Machinery

b. Cash

c. Creditor

d. Rent

Clear my choice

Question 4. Which of the following is not a financial statement?

Select one:

a. Balance sheet

b. Profit and loss account

c. Trial balance

d. Cash flow statement

Clear my choice

Question 5. Book keeping is a mechanical task which involves –

Select one:

a. Collecting of basic financial information.

b. Classifying effects of economic transactions

c. both (a) and (b)

d. None

Clear my choice

Question 6. Purchases book is used to record

Select one:

a. All purchases of goods

b. All credit purchases of assets other than goods

c. All credit purchase

d. All credit purchases of goods

Clear my choice

Question 7. Based on which of the following concepts, is share capital account shown on the liabilities side of a balance sheet?

Select one:

a. going concern concept

b. matching concept

c. business entity concept

d. money measurement concept

Clear my choice

Question 8. Accounting does not record non-financial transactions because of

Select one:

a. Cost Concept

b. Accrual Concept

c. Entity concept

d. Money Measurement Concept

Clear my choice

Question 9. The determination of expenses for an accounting period is based on the concept of

Select one:

a. Matching

b. Objectivity

c. Materiality

d. periodicity

Clear my choice

Question 10. Real a/c debit balance indicates –

Select one:

a. Asset

b. Loss

c. Income

d. Expenses

Clear my choice

Question 11. Income and Expenditure Account is a

Select one:

a. Personal Account

b. Nominal Account

c. Real Account

d. Artificial Personal Account

Clear my choice

Question 12. Purchase of a laptop for office use wrongly debited to Purchase Account. It is an error of

Select one:

a. Omission

b. Principle

c. Misposting

d. Commission

Clear my choice

Question 13. Debit balance as per bank pass book means –

Select one:

a. Surplus cash

b. Terms deposits with bank

c. Bank overdraft

d. None of these

Clear my choice

Question 14. Creditors ledger adjustment account is opened in

Select one:

a. General Ledger

b. Either (B) or (C)

c. Debtors Ledger

d. Creditors Ledger

Clear my choice

Question 15. Are the following statements about debit entries true or false? 1- A debit entry in the cash book will increase an overdraft in the accounts. 2- A debit entry in the cash book will increase a bank balance in the accounts.

Select one:

a. Both true

b. 1 false and 2 true

c. Both false

d. 1 true and 2 false

Clear my choice

Question 16. You are given the following information: Receivables at 1 January 20X3 $10,000, Receivables at 31 December 20X3 $9,000, Total receipts during 20X3 (including cash sales of $5,000) $85,000, What are sales on credit during 20X3?

Select one:

a. $79,000

b. $84,000

c. $86,000

d. $81,000

Clear my choice

Question 17. A business sells $100 worth of goods to a customer, the customer pays $50 in cash immediately and will pay the remaining $50 in 30 days’ time. What is the double entry to record the purchase in the customer’s accounting records?

Select one:

a. Debit cash $50, credit payables $50, credit purchases $50

b. Debit purchases $100, credit payables $50, credit cash $50

c. Debit purchases $100, credit cash $100

d. Debit payables $50, debit cash $50, credit purchases $100

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2nd Module Assessment

An increase in the provision for doubtful debt will

Select one:

a. Decrease in net profit

b. Increase in net profit

c. Increase in liability

d. Non of the above

Question 1. Inventory is

Select one:

a. Included in the category of fixed assets

b. An intangible fixed asset

c. A part of current assets

d. An investment

Clear my choice

Question 2. Change in the method of depreciation is change in _______.

Select one:

a. Measurement discipline

b. Accounting policy

c. None of the above

d. Accounting estimate

Clear my choice

Question 3. Among the financial statements, ___________ is/ are referred to as ‘period statement’.

Select one:

a. Trading Account

b. Both (a) and (b)

c. Balance Sheet

d. Profit & Loss Account

Clear my choice

Question 4. Gross profit is the difference between

Select one:

a. Sales and non-operating expenses

b. None of the above

c. Sales and cost of goods sold

d. Sales and operating expenses

Clear my choice

Question 5. Depreciation is a –

Select one:

a. Provision

b. Reserve

c. Liability

d. Loss

Clear my choice

Question 6. The financial statements of an organisation are drafted using the ___________.

Select one:

a. Ledger balances

b. Events

c. None of the above.

d. Transactions

Clear my choice

Question 7. The purpose of preparing final accounts is to ascertain ___________

Select one:

a. Capital

b. The value of assets

c. Profit or loss

d. Profit or loss and financial position

Clear my choice

Question 8. ________ Account charges the COGS and other direct expenses and losses against the sales revenue to determine the gross operating result of the concern during a particular accounting period.

Select one:

a. Receipts & Payments

b. Trading

c. Income & Expenditure

d. Profit & Loss

Clear my choice

Question 9. Balance sheet is prepared

Select one:

a. None of the above

b. At a particular date

c. At the close of a day

d. For the close of a period

Clear my choice

Question 10. Bank overdraft is a

Select one:

a. An asset

b. A liability

c. Revenue

d. Expenses

Clear my choice

If a company wants to earn a 25% profit on sales, what will be the profit mark up on the cost.

Select one:

a. 20%

b. 33.33%

c. 25%

d. 30%

Question 11. Obsolescence of a depreciable asset may be caused by: I. Technological changes II. Improvement in production method. III. Change in market demand for the product or service output. IV. Legal or other restrictions.

Select one:

a. All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above

b. None

c. Both (I) and (II) above

d. Only (I) above

Clear my choice

Question 12. All of the following support the objectives of financial reporting except providing information that

Select one:

a. helps management evaluate alternative projects

b. is useful for making investment and credit decisions

c. concerns enterprise resources and claims to those resources

d. helps investors and creditors predict future cash flows

Clear my choice

Question 13. If a concern proposes to discontinue its business from March 2015 and decides to dispose of all its plants within a period of 4 months, the Balance Sheet as on March 31, 2015 should indicate the plants at their

Select one:

a. Historical cost

b. All

c. Net realizable value

d. Cost less depreciation

Clear my choice

Question 14. Assets are listed on the balance sheet in the order of their

Select one:

a. liquidity

b. purchase date

c. balance

d. adjustments

Clear my choice

Question 15. Which of the following items may appear as current liabilities in a company’s statement of financial position? 1 Revaluation surplus, 2 Loan due for repayment within one year, 3 Taxation, 4 Preference dividend payable on redeemable preference shares

Select one:

a. 1, 2 and 4

b. 1, 3 and 4

c. 2, 3 and 4

d. 1, 2 and 3

Clear my choice

Question 16. Original cost = INR. 12,60,000; Salvage value = Nil; Useful life = 6 years. Depreciation for the first year under sum of years digits method will be

Select one:

a. 1,55,000

b. 1,20,000

c. 1,80,000

d. 3,60,000

Clear my choice

Question 17. Which of the following might appear as an item in a company’s statement of changes in equity? 1 Profit on disposal of properties 2 Surplus on revaluation of properties 3 Equity dividends proposed after the reporting date 4 Issue of share capital

Select one:

a. 3 and 4 only

b. 2 and 4 only

c. 1 and 2 only

d. 1, 3 and 4 only

Clear my choice

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3rd Module Assessment

 

International accounting standards are currently developed by which entity?

Select one:

a. Financial Services Authority

b. International Accounting Standards Board

c. International Accounting Standards Committee

d. None of the above

Question 1. Equity equals

Select one:

a. Assets – Liabilities.

b. Assets + Liabilities.

c. None of the above

d. Liabilities – Assets.

Clear my choice

Question 2. Which of the following elements represents an economic resource ?

Select one:

a. None of the above

b. Owners ’ equity

c. Asset

d. Liability

Clear my choice

Question 3Which of the following items would most likely be classifi ed as a fi nancing activity?

Select one:

a. Investments in the stock of a supplier

b. Payment of income taxes

c. Issuance of debt

d. None of the above

Clear my choice

Question 4

Which of the following items would most likely be classifi ed as an operating activity?

Select one:

a. Acquisition of a competitor

b. Issuance of debt

c. None of the above

d. Sale of automobiles by an automobile dealer

Clear my choice

Question 5. Retained earnings are a component of

Select one:

a. liabilities.

b. owners ’ equity.

c. minority interest.

d. None of the above

Clear my choice

Question 6. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a coherent fi nancial reporting framework?

Select one:

a. Consistency

b. Transparency

c. None of the above

d. Timeliness

Clear my choice

Question 7. Which of the following elements represents a residual claim?

Select one:

a. None of the above

b. Asset

c. Owners ’ equity

d. Liability

Clear my choice

Question 8. The statement of cash fl ows presents the fl ows into which three groups of business activities?

Select one:

a. None of the above

b. Operating, nonoperating, and investing

c. Operating, investing, and fi nancing

d. Operating, nonoperating, and fi nancing

Clear my choice

Question 9. Which of the following is not an objective of fi nancial statements as expressed by the International Accounting Standards Board?

Select one:

a. To provide information about the performance of an entity

b. To provide information about the fi nancial position of an entity

c. To provide information about the users of an entity ’ s fi nancial statements

d. None of the above

Clear my choice

Question 10. Debt due within one year is considered

Select one:

a. preferred.

b. None of the above

c. long term.

d. current.

Clear my choice

Which of the following ratios would be most useful in determining a company ’ s ability to cover its debt payments?

Select one:

a. None of the above

b. ROA

c. Total asset turnover

d. Fixed charge coverage

Question 11. Comparison of a company ’ s financial results to other peer companies for the same time period is called

Select one:

a. None of the above

b. time – series analysis.

c. cross – sectional analysis.

d. horizontal analysis.

Clear my choice

Question 12. Which ratio would a company most likely use to measure its ability to meet short – term obligations?

Select one:

a. Payables turnover

b. None of the above

c. Gross profi t margin

d. Current ratio

Clear my choice

Question 13. What does the P/E ratio measure?

Select one:

a. The earnings for one common share of stock.

b. None of the above

c. The relationship between dividends and market prices.

d. The “ multiple ” that the stock market places on a company ’ s EPS.

Clear my choice

Question 14. In order to assess a company ’ s ability to fulfill its long – term obligations, an analyst would most likely examine

Select one:

a. activity ratios.

b. None of the above

c. liquidity ratios.

d. solvency ratios.

Clear my choice

Question 15. An analyst has projected that a company will have assets of € 2,000 at year – end and liabilities of € 1,200. The analyst ’ s projection of total owners ’ equity should be closest to

Select one:

a. € 3,200.00

b. € 4,000.00

c. € 2,000.00

d. € 800.00

Clear my choice

Question 16. For fi nancial assets classifi ed as available for sale, how are unrealized gains and losses reflected in shareholders ’ equity?

Select one:

a. They fl ow through retained earnings

b. As a separate line item (other comprehensive income).

c. They are not recognized

d. None of the above

Clear my choice

Question 17. Defining total asset turnover as revenue divided by average total assets, all else equal, impairment write – downs of long – lived assets owned by a company will most likely result in an increase for that company in

Select one:

a. both the debt – to – equity ratio and the total asset turnover.

b. the debt – to – equity ratio but not the total asset turnover.

c. None of the above

d. the total asset turnover but not the debt – to – equity ratio

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4th Module Assessment

One of the following is NOT an objective of cost accounting

Select one:

a. To provide information to aid control

b. To provide information for decision making

c. To ascertain cost and facilitate pricing

d. To investigate fraud

Question 1. Under marginal costing the cost of product includes

Select one:

a. Prime costs only

b. Price costs and variable overheads

c. Prime costs and factory overheads

d. Prime costs and fixed overheads

Clear my choice

Question 2. Cost accounting is an integral part of

Select one:                                                          

a. Management accounting

b. Treasury accounting

c. Forensic accounting

d. Financial accounting

Clear my choice

Question 3. Cost which is related to specific cost object and economically traceable is classified as

Select one:

a. direct cost

b. staff cost

c. line cost

d. indirect cost

Clear my choice

Question 4. Costs are classified as fixed or variable on basis of

Select one:

a. given time period

b. both a and b

c. common activity

d. specific activity

Clear my choice

Question 5. The standard which is attainable under favourable conditions is

Select one:

a. Basic standard

b. Expected standard

c. Normal standard

d. Theoretical standard

Clear my choice

Question 6. Materials cost do NOT include cost of

Select one:

a. Raw materials

b. Fixed assets

c. Packing materials

d. Work in progress

Clear my choice

Question 7. Process of tracing direct costs and allocation of indirect costs is classified as

Select one:

a. economic assignment

b. indirect assignment

c. cost assignment

d. direct assignment

Clear my choice

Question 8. In accounting, cost which is predicted to be incurred or future cost is classified as

Select one:

a. actual cost

b. budgeted cost

c. past cost

d. incurred cost

Clear my choice

Question 9. Under standard cost system the cost of the product determined at the beginning of production is its:

Select one:

a. Actual cost

b. Pre-determined cost

c. Direct cost

d. Historical cost

Clear my choice

Question 10. The deviations between actual and standard cost is known as

Select one:

a. Variance analysis

b. Multiple analysis

c. Variable cost analysis

d. Linear trend analysis

Clear my choice

When sales exceed production (in units) then profit under

Select one:

a. None of above

b. Marginal costing is higher than that of absorption costing

c. Marginal costing is equal than that of absorption costing

d. Marginal costing is lower than that of absorption costing

Question 11. When sales and production (in units) are same then profit under

Select one:

a. Marginal costing is lower than that of absorption costing

b. Marginal costing is equal to that of absorption costing

c. Marginal costing is higher than that of absorption costing

d. None of the above

Clear my choice

Question 12. Period costs are

Select one:

a. Prime costs

b. Variable costs

c. Fixed costs

d. Overheads costs

Clear my choice

Question 13. Which of the following variance arises when more than one material is used in the manufacture of a product

Select one:

a. Material yield variance

b. Material mix variance

c. Material usage variance

d. Material price variance

Clear my choice

Question 14. The main difference between marginal costing and absorption costing is regarding the treatment of

Select one:

a. Direct materials

b. Variable overheads

c. Prime cost

d. Fixed overheads

Clear my choice

Question 15. If P/V ratio is 40% of sales then what about the remaining 60% of sales

Select one:

a. Margin of safety

b. Fixed cost

c. Profit

d. Variable cost

Clear my choice

Question 16. The P/V ratio of a product is 0.6 and profit is INR. 9,000. The margin of safety is

Select one:

a. INR. 3,600

b. INR. 5,400

c. INR. 22,500

d. INR. 15,000

Clear my choice

Question 17. The classification of fixed and variable cost is useful for the preparation of

Select one:

a. Master budget

b. Cash budget

c. Flexible budget

d. Capital budget

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5th Module Assessment

Income from investments is a cash flow from –

Select one:

a. None of the above

b. Investing activities

c. Operating activities

d. Financing activities

Question 1          expenses related to business are charged:

Select one:

a. Profit and loss account

b. Trading account

c. Directly to Balance sheet

d. Trading account Profit and Loss account

Clear my choice

Question 2. Accounting for price level changes may also be sometimes called as —————

Select one:

a. Environmental Accounting

b. None of the above

c. Inflation Accounting

d. Deflation Accounting

Clear my choice

Question 3. The global key professional accounting body is —

Select one:

a. The Financial Accounting Standards Board

b. The International Accounting Standards Committee

c. The International Accounting Standards Committee

d. The International Accounting Standards Board

Clear my choice

Question 4. Accounting in India is governed by the —

Select one:

a. Income Tax Department

b. Institute of Chartered Accountants of India

c. Reserve Bank of India

d. Company Law Board

Clear my choice

Question 5. The main objective of preparing price level changes accounting is to————-

Select one:

a. Both A & B ()

b. Inflate the values based on a predetermined factor price()

c. None of the above

d. Match the financial report to the current price levels

Clear my choice

Question 6. The accounting process in which the financial statements of a parent company and its subsidiaries are added together to yield a unified set of financial statements is called —

Select one:

a. translation

b. amortization

c. consolidation

d. amalgamation

Clear my choice

Question 7. Based on the following type of accounting—————— an appropriate choice whether to make investment in manpower or other resources is made

Select one:

a. Inflation Accounting

b. Human Resource Accounting

c. Creative Accounting

d. Financial Accounting

Clear my choice

Question 8. …………………Accounting deals with employees and management in an organization

Select one:

a. Environment

b. None of the above

c. Inflation

d. Human Resource

Clear my choice

Question 9. The art of valuing, recording and presenting the value of human capital of an organization in an systematic manner is known as ——————

Select one:

a. Human Resource

b. Human Resource Accounting

c. Human Resource Management

d. None of the above

Clear my choice

Question 10. The increase of decrease in the prices of various goods and services over a period of time is known as———————-

Select one:

a. Price Level Changes

b. Inflation

c. None of the above

d. Deflation

Clear my choice

One of the objectives of ——————- accounting is to provide sound and effective basis for quality control.

Select one:

a. IPR Accounting

b. Creative Accounting

c. Human Resource Accounting

d. None of the above

Question 11. The basic premises of Human Resource Accounting ———————-

Select one:

a. Both A & B

b. None of the above

c. Human is a valuable resource, and its development expenditure is a valuable Investment

d. Human beings are skillful and their development is an additional expenditure

Clear my choice

Question 12. …………………………Approach suggests that the expenditure on Human Resource needs to be capitalized and not transfer it to profit and loss account.

Select one:

a. Historical Cost Approach

b. None of the above

c. Both A & B

d. Net Present Value of future earnings approach

Clear my choice

Question 13. Price for changes accounting can be done by the following method————–

Select one:

a. None of the above

b. Current purchasing power, Current Value Accounting

c. Both a and b

d. Replacement Cost Accounting, Current Cost Accounting

Clear my choice

Question 14. Following are the drawbacks and objections raised against ——————— Accounting. It cannot be valued and measured, There are many methods and none are recognized by any law, It calls for extensive research.

Select one:

a. Creative Accounting

b. Human Resource Accounting

c. Inflation

d. Forensic Accounting

Clear my choice

Question 15. Working capital ratio is also known as –

Select one:

a. Current ratio

b. Debt-equity ratio

c. Quick ratio

d. Liquid ratio.

Clear my choice

Question 16. Which of the following is a method used in analysing financial statements –

Select one:

a. Budget analysis

b. Break-even analysis

c. Variance analysis

d. Trend analysis

Question17. As per Accounting Standard – 3, cash equivalents include –

Select one:

a. Treasury bills

b. All of the above

c. Money market funds

d. Commercial papers

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Statistics for Management (QAM601)-Semester I

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AMITY (Assignment)  MBA  Semester 1

Statistics for Management (QAM601)-Semester I

Question 1

Inferential statistics can be defined as a part of statistics related to _______.

Select one:

a. summarising data

b. organising data

c. research on data

d. sorting data

Question 2

________ is facilitated by Statistics.

Select one:

a. data representation

b. comparison

c. easy interpretation

d. all of these

Question 3

Measures of central tendency are part of which type of statistics?

Select one:

a. descriptive

b. inferential

c. both of these

d. none of these

Question 4

The data set 32,41,52,11,53,74,21,44,26,75, has _______ number of modes.

Select one:

a. 1

b. 2

c. 3

d. none of these

Question 5

According to the idea of interquartile range, the whole data set is divided into ____ number of parts.

Select one:

a. 2

b. 4

c. 6

d. 8

Question 6

________ can be considered as balancing point of the data.

Select one:

a. mean

b. mode

c. skewness

d. all of these

Question 7

________ data requires no order or sequence while collection.

Select one:

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. both of these

d. none of these

Question 8

The most frequent data value is called ______

Select one:

a. mean

b. median

c. mode

d. variance

Question 9

Dispersion can also be defined as degree of _____

Select one:

a. spread

b. diversity

c. scatterness

d. all of these

Question 10

Data collected on weight of students in a class of 50 students is a _________ type of data.

Select one:

a. nominal

b. ordinal

c. discrete

d. continuous

Question 11

For finding median in continuous series, which amongst the following are of importance?

Select one:

a. Lower limit of the median class

b. Particular frequency of the median class

c. cumulative frequency preceeding the median class

d. all of these

Question 12

In continuous type of series, for finding mean, which amongst the following is considered as X variable value?

Select one:

a. lower limit of the interval

b. upper limit of the interval

c. mid point of the interval

d. none of these

Question 13

Temperature of 100 patients visited to a doctor’s clinic on Sunday can be an example of ________ type of data.

Select one:

a. grouped

b. ungrouped

c. nominal

d. ordinal

Question 14

Median as quartiles can be termed as _____

Select one:

a. Q1

b. Q2

c. Q3

d. Q4

Children – ungrouped

Question 15

For a continuous data distribution, 10-20 with frequency 3, 20-30 with frequency 5, 30-40 with frequency 7and 40-50 with frequency 1, the value of Q_3 is ________.

Select one:

a. 34

b. 30

c. 35.7

d. 32.6

Question 16

For a continuous data distribution, 10-20 with frequency 3, 20-30 with frequency 5, 30-40 with frequency 7and 40-50 with frequency 1, the value of quartile deviation is ________.

Select one:

a. 2

b. 6.85

c. 6.32

d. 10

Question 17

For a continuous data distribution, 10-20 with frequency 3, 20-30 with frequency 5, 30-40 with frequency 7and 40-50 with frequency 1, the value of Q_1 is ________.

Select one:

a. 10.5

b. 22

c. 26

d. 24

30/30

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Statistics for Management

Module 2

Binomial distribution is symmetrical when ____ .

Select one:

a. p>q

b. p<q

c. p=q

d. p≠q

Question 2

Range or scale of probability is ____.

Select one:

a. minus one to plus one

b. zero to one

c. minus one to zero

d. none of these

Question 3

As per the “Multiplication Rule of Probability”, in case of Dependent events P(AB) = P(A) . P(B/A), where P(AB) is called ____________ probability.

Select one:

a. Joint

b. Marginal

c. Conditional

d. none of these

Question 4

Normal Distribution is a continuous frequency distribution of _______ range.

Select one:

a. finite

b. infinite

c. both of these

d. none of these

Question 5

As per the “Multiplication Rule of Probability”, in case of Dependent events P(AB) = P(A) . P(B/A), where P(A) is called ____________ probability.

Select one:

a. Joint

b. Marginal

c. Conditional

d. none of these

Question 6

According to empirical rule _____ percentage of data lies between one standard deviation of data.

Select one:

a. 99.7

b. 13.5

c. 68

d. none of these

Question 7

If p represents the probability of success of a player in any game and M represents the sum of money he will receive in case of success

Then his expectation = ______.

Select one:

a. p/M

b. p*M

c. p+M

d. p-M

Question 8

Addition rule of probability is P(A union B)= P(A)+P(B) for ______ events.

Select one:

a. mutually exclusive

b. equally likely

c. non exhaustive

d. all of these

Question 9

In an experiment of tossing a coin. If A = getting a head and B = getting a tail. Then A and B are _________ events.

Select one:

a. mutually exclusive

b. equally likely

c. exhaustive

d. all of these

Question 10

Events are said to be _______ when one does not occur more often than the others.

Select one:

a. equally likely

b. complementary

c. disjoint

d. mutually exclusive

Question 11

In which case will the binomial distribution be applied?

Select one:

a. When we have to find the probability of 6 heads in 10 throws of a fair coin

b. When we have to find the probability that 3 out of 10 items produced by a machine, which produces 8 % defective items on an average, will be defective

c. both of these

d. None of these

Question 12

Which of the following will present a symmetrical graph when plotted?

Select one:

a. B(0.3,10)

b. B(0.5,10)

c. B(0.8,10)

d. B(0.9,10)

Question 13

Consider an experiment of rolling a fair dice. The probability that both dice show a 4 is ____

Select one:

a. 1/2

b. 1/36

c. 1/4

d. 1/12

Question 14

Total number of items in the sample space of an event of tossing two coins together is _____.

Select one:

a. 2

b. 4

c. 8

d. 16

Question 15

A table of 4 students has 1 is senior and 3 juniors. The teacher is going to pick 2 students at random from this group to present homework solutions. Probability that both students selected are juniors is _____.

Select one:

a. 1/3

b. 1/2

c. 1/4

d. 1/6

Question 16

Regarding a certain normal distribution concerning the income of the individuals we are given that mean = 500 rupees and standard deviation = 100 rupees. Find the possibility that an individual selected at random will belong to the income group Rs. 420 to Rs. 570.

Select one:

a. 0.183

b. 0.213

c. 0.546

d. none of these

Question 17

Births in a hospital occur randomly at an average rate of 1.8 births per hour. What is the probability of observing 4 births in a given hour at the hospital?

Select one:

a. 0.3628

b. 0.0723

c. 0.7329

d. none of these

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Other Questions

As per the “Multiplication Rule of Probability”, in case of Dependent events P(AB) = P(A) . P(B/A), where P(B/A) is called ____________ probability.

condtonal

In an experiment of tossing a coin. If A = getting a head and B = getting a tail. Then A and B are _________ events.

d. all of these ryt

As per the “Multiplication Rule of Probability”, in case of Dependent events P(AB) = P(A) . P(B/A), where P(AB) is called ____________ probability.

Joint

Addition rule of probability is P(A union B)= P(A)+P(B) for ______ events.

 non exhaustive

Normal Distribution is a continuous frequency distribution of _______ range.

infinite

If p represents the probability of success of a player in any game and M represents the sum of money he will receive in case of success

p*M

According to empirical rule _____ percentage of data lies between one standard deviation of data.  

68

As per the “Multiplication Rule of Probability”, in case of Dependent events P(AB) = P(A) . P(B/A), where P(A) is called ____________ probabilit

Marginal

Events are said to be _______ when one does not occur more often than the others.

Select one:

equally likely

Total number of items in the sample space of an event of tossing two coins together is

4

Which of the following will present a symmetrical graph when plotted?

B(0.5,10

In which case will the binomial distribution be applied?

both of these

In which case amongst the following can we use Poisson Distribution?

both of these

Regarding a certain normal distribution concerning the income of the individuals we are given that mean = 500 rupees and standard deviation = 100 rupees. Find the possibility that an individual selected at random will belong to the income group Rs. 420 to Rs. 570

0.546

A table of 4 students has 1 is senior and 3 juniors. The teacher is going to pick 2 students at random from this group to present homework solutions. Probability that both students selected are juniors is _____.

1/2

Births in a hospital occur randomly at an average rate of 1.8 births per hour. What is the probability of observing 4 births in a given hour at the hospital?

none of these  0.213   0.183 Wrong

Births in a hospital occur randomly at an average rate of 1.8 births per hour. What is the probability of observing 4 births in a given hour at the hospital?

0.0723

28/30

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3rd Module Assessment

What does the ‘representativeness’ of a sample mean?

Select one:

a. The size of the sample relative to the population

b. Whether a random or non-random sampling method has been used

c. How closely the sample represents or matches the population on key characteristics

d. The level of non-response bias present within a sample

Question 2

What is NOT a source of error in survey research?

Select one:

a. When people provide socially desirable answers

b. Bias introduced by the method of selecting participants

c. Effects of the survey interviewer or questions on respondents

d. The number of questions included in a survey

Question 3

When might you use stratified sampling?

Select one:

a. When conducting a household opinion survey

b. When the snowball method is not appropriate

c. When it is difficult or impossible to know who is part of the sampling frame

d. When you want to maintain the proportionality of groups in your sample

Question 4

The goal of sampling is to select a sample that accurately represents the larger population, taking into account the ________

Select one:

a. practicalities

b. constraints

c. both of these

d. none of these

Question 5

Sampling is a process of _________.

Select one:

a. selecting observations from a larger population

b. arranging data in sequencing

c. data cleansing

d. organising data

Question 6

What is a ‘convenience sample’?

Select one:

a. Randomly selecting groups to participate

b. Selecting people at random from a population

c. Asking people to nominate others to participate

d. Selecting people based on their willingness or interest in taking part in the project

Question 7

What’s the difference between a statistic and a parameter?

Select one:

a. A statistic is the R2 value of a regression and a parameter is the regression weight

b. A statistic is an average and the parameter is a weighted average

c. A statistic is an estimate of a population parameter; we compute statistics and estimate parameters

d. none of these

Question 8

What does a population include?

Select one:

a. The population is a smaller sample of the larger group

b. The population includes all objects/observations of interest

c. The population is the group of observations that are selected at random

d. The population is a group of employees who report directly to a manager

Question 9

How is sampling NOT like an experiment?

Select one:

a. Sampling influences the observations whereas an experiment does not

b. Sampling is the same process as an experiment so there is no difference

c. Sampling is a process within an experiment as part of statistical analysis

d. Sampling does not influence or affect the observations whereas an experiment does

Question 10

What is ‘sampling error’?

Select one:

a. Forgetting to include everyone in the survey mailing list

b. Inaccuracies in our sample introduced by the methods we use to select participants

c. Sending the survey invitation to people outside your company

d. A way of quantifying the effects of a statistical cluster

Question 11

What is the critical z-score value for a 95% confidence level?

Select one:

a. 0.96

b. 1.96

c. 2.96

d. none of these

Question 12

If a z-score is 1.96, what does this mean?

Select one:

a. The score is 1.96 SD above the population mean, which is meaningful

b. The score is 1.96% above the population mean, which is not meaningful

c. The sample mean is 1.96

d. The sample mean ranges between +/- 1.96

Question 13

When do we use a t-distribution?

Select one:

a. when it is impractical to calculate z-scores

b. When the sample size is very large

c. For small samples and when the population SD is unknown

d. When we know the population SD

Question 14

What is the standard error?

Select one:

a. The error inherent within the sampling method

b. When the p-value exceeds 0.05

c. The standard deviation of the sampling distribution for the statistic

d. The 95% confidence interval

Question 15

What is the rule of thumb to assume a sampling distribution of a proportion is approximately normal?

Select one:

a. There must be 30 or more cases in the sample

b. √p(1-p)/n must be less than 1

c. n*p and n(1-p) both at least 10 or more

d. The reliability must be 0.70 or more

Question 16

What affects the sampling distribution of a proportion?

Select one:

a. Sample size only

b. The population proportion only

c. The standard error of the proportion

d. Both the sample size and the population proportion

Question 17

What is the key practical implication of the Central Limit Theorem?

Select one:

a. A sufficiently large sample can predict the parameters of a population such as a mean and standard deviation

b. It informs how you should sample respondents

c. The smaller the sample, the more accurate our estimates of the population parameters

d. A ‘normal’ distribution looks like a bell-shaped curve

Other Question

What is NOT a component of a confidence interval.

Select one:

a. A p-value

b. A statistic

c. A confidence level

d. A margin of error

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Statistics for Management (QAM601)-Semester I

5th Module Assessment

General equation of the regression line x on y is ________.

Select one:

a. (x-xbar)=b_xy (y-ybar)

b. (x-xbar)=b_yx (y-ybar)

c. (x+xbar)=b_xy (y+ybar)

d. (y-ybar)=b_xy (x-xbar)

Question 2

If cov (x,y) = 0 is zero, then is ______ correlation.

Select one:

a. positive

b. negative

c. zero

d. none of these

Question 3

In rank correlation coefficient formula, sum of squared differences between the ranks is divided by _______.

Select one:

a. n(n^2-1)

b. n(n^2+1)

c. n(1-n^2)

d. n(1+n^2)

Question 4

If cov (x,y) is negative, then variable x ______ as variable y increase.

Select one:

a. increase

b. decrease

c. remains constant

d. None of these

Question 5

Range of Correlation coefficient is _____.

Select one:

a. minus infinity to plus infinity

b. minus one to plus 1

c. minus one to zero

d. zero to plus one

Question 6

On the basis of change in proportion, which amongst the following is a type of correlation.

Select one:

a. Simple

b. Multiple

c. Zero

d. none of these

Question 7

Regression line equation is in which form of equation?

Select one:

a. intercept form of equation

b. point slope form of equation

c. two point form of equation

d. none of these

Question 8

On the basis of number of variables __________correlation is a type of correlation.

Select one:

a. positive

b. negative

c. partial

d. zero

Question 9

Correlation is denoted by _______

Select one:

a. r

b. ρ

c. both of these

d. none of these

Question 10

“If a car increases speed, travel time to a destination decreases”, is an example of _______ correlation.

Select one:

a. Partial

b. Negative

c. Multiple

d. Positive

Question 11

Which amongst the following is not required to find rank correlation coefficient?

Select one:

a. Difference between ranks

b. Number of items

c. Pearson correlation coefficient

d. All of these

Question 12

Regression coefficient b_yx can be calculated as _____ * [S.D. (y) / S.D. (x)]

Select one:

a. rho

b. sigma

c. phi

d. alpha

Question 13

Which amongst the following is not required to find Karl pearson coefficient of correlation?

Select one:

a. Standard deviation

b. variance

c. covariance

d. None of these

Question 14

Variable of sales dependent upon both advertisement and price variables, can be considerred as an examples of ______ correlation.

Select one:

a. simple

b. partial

c. multiple

d. zero

Question 15

Following data refers to the years of service (variable X) put in by seven specialized workers in a factory and their monthly incomes (variable Y). X variable values with corresponding Y variable values can be listed as,, 11 years of service with income 700, 7 years of service with income 500, 9 years of service with income 300, 5 years of service with income 200, 8 years of service with income 600, 6 years of service with income 400, 10 years of service with income 800. Regression equation y on x is ______.

Select one:

a. y=3/4x+1

b. y=4/3x-1

c. y=3/4x-1

d. y=1-3/4x

Question 16

Following data refers to the years of service (variable X) put in by seven specialized workers in a factory and their monthly incomes (variable Y). X variable values with corresponding Y variable values can be listed as,, 11 years of service with income 700, 7 years of service with income 500, 9 years of service with income 300, 5 years of service with income 200, 8 years of service with income 600, 6 years of service with income 400, 10 years of service with income 800. Find the correlation coefiicient.

Select one:

a. -0.45

b. 0.29

c. 0.36

d. 0.75

Question 17

Following data refers to the years of service (variable X) put in by seven specialized workers in a factory and their monthly incomes (variable Y) in hundreds of rupees. X variable values with corresponding Y variable values can be listed as,, 11 years of service with income 700, 7 years of service with income 500, 9 years of service with income 300, 5 years of service with income 200, 8 years of service with income 600, 6 years of service with income 400, 10 years of service with income 800. Bases on the regression equation y on x, for 12 years of service in the similar field, what would be the recommended salary in hundreds of rupees?

Select one:

a. 600

b. 700

c. 500

d. 800

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Other questions

If cov (x,y) is positive, then variable x ______ as variable y increase.

Select one:

a. increase 

b. decrease

c. remains constant

d. None of these

Variables like Advertisement and Sales which would yield a positive correlation, can be considerred as an examples of ______ correlation.

Select one:

a. simple  

b. partial

c. multiple

d. zero

29/30


Assignment 2

A researcher is comparing two multiple-choice tests with different conditions. In the first test, a typical multiple-choice test is administered. In the second test, alternative choices (i.e. incorrect answers) are randomly assigned to test takers. The results from the two tests are given below.

            Regular test    Randomized answers

Mean   59.9     44.8

S.D.      10.2     12.7

Question 1 : Can the scatterness of the two distributions be compared, just by looking at the given figures?

Select one:

a. Yes, as the S.D. is given

b. No, as the mean is not same

c. May be

d. Can’t say

Question 2

What relative measure of dispersion can be used in order to compare these two distributions?

Select one:

a. Range

b. Coefficient of quartile deviation

c. Coefficient of variation

d. variance

Question 3

Value of coefficient of variation for first type “Regular test” will be ______.

Select one:

a. 10.4

b. 12.3

c. 17.3

d. 15

Question 4

Value of coefficient of variation for first type “Randomized answers” will be ______.

Select one:

a. 23

b. 28.3

c. 10

d. 16.3

Question 5

Coefficient of variation is measured in terms of ____.

Select one:

a. units

b. ratios

c. percentages

d. none of these

15/15

 

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Marketing Management (MKTG601)-Semester I

Marketing Management (MKTG601)-Semester I

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AMITY (Assignment)  MBA  Semester 1

Question 1. The buying process begins when the buyer recognizes a _________.

a. a salesperson from a previous visit

 b. problem or need

 c. an advertisement for the product

 d. Product

Question 2. ________ can be conducted electronically, with buyer and seller seeing each other on their computer screens in real time.

 a. Personal selling

 b. Public relations

 c. Mass marketing

 d. Advertising

Question 3. Which of the following is a “key player” in the marketing industry?

 a. marketer

 b. suppliers or vendors

 c. All of these

 d. distributors or retailers

Question 4. A transaction usually involves ________.

 a. All of these

 b. at least two parties where each party has something that might be of value to the other party

 c. each party is capable of communication and delivery

 d. each party is free to accept or reject the exchange offer

Question 5. Marketing is considered as both an “art” and a “science”—there is constant tension between the formulated side of marketing and the ________ side

 a. management

 b. creative

 c. forecasting

 d. selling

Question 6. The MOST formal definition of marketing is ________.

 a. identifying and meeting human and social needs

 b. the 4Ps (Product, Price, Place, Promotion)

 c. meeting needs profitably

 d. an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering, value to customers, and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stake holders.

Question 7. Good marketing is a result of careful planning and ________.

 a. selling

 b. research

 c. execution

 d. strategies

Question 8. Which of the following is a type of factor in a company’s macroenvironment?

 a. demographic

 b. All of these

 c. technological

 d. economic

Question 9. Marketing management is ________.

 a. selecting target markets

 b. monitoring the profitability of the companies products and services

 c. the art and science of choosing target markets and getting, keeping, and growing customers through creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value

 d. developing marketing strategies to move the company forward

Question 10. ________ is the act of obtaining an object from someone by offering some other thing in return.

 a. Exchange

 b. Value creation

 c. Bribery

 d. A value proposition

Question 11. Global marketers should decide ________.

 a. how to enter each country (as an exporter, licenser, joint venture partner, contract manufacturer, or solo manufacturer)

 b. how to adapt their product and service features to each country

 c. how to price their products in different countries

 d. all of the above

Question 12. Marketers use the term ________ for covering various groupings of customers

 a. demographic segment

 b. market

 c. people

 d. social class position

Question 13. ________ goods constitute the bulk for most of the countries’ production and marketing efforts.

 a. Physical

 b. Durable

 c. Service

 d. Impulse

Question 14. ________ can be produced and marketed as a product

 a. Celebrities

 b. Information

 c. Organizations

 d. Properties

Question 15. In business markets, advertising can play a role, but a stronger role may be played by the sales force, ________, and the company’s reputation for reliability and quality

 a. promotion

 b. distribution

 c. brand image

 d. price

Question 16. ________ can be seen as the development, design, and implementation of marketing programs, processes, and activities that identifies the breadth and interdependencies of their effects.

 a. Niche marketing

 b. Relationship marketing

 c. Supply-chain marketing

 d. Holistic marketing

Question 17. A ________ is someone seeking a response (attention, a purchase, a vote, a donation) from another party, called the ________.

 a. fund raiser, contributor

 b. salesperson, customer

 c. celebrity, audience

 d. marketer, prospect

The ________ concept explains that consumers and businesses, if left alone, will ordinarily not buy enough of the organization’s products.

Select one:

a. holistic marketing

b. selling

c. production

d. marketing

Question 13. Marketers use the term ________ for covering various groupings of customers

Select one:

a. market

b. demographic segment

c. social class position

d. people

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2nd Module Assessment

Customer’s evaluation of the difference between all the benefits and all the costs of a marketing offer relative to those of competing offers refers to which of the following options?

Select one:

a. Customer perceived value

b. Customer satisfaction

c. Marketing myopia

d. Customer relationship management

Question 1. During market segmentation analysis, the marketer identifies which segments present the greatest opportunity. These segments are called ________.

Select one:

a. primary markets

b. tertiary markets

c. demographic markets

d. target markets

Clear my choice

Question 2.  ________ is the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and wants.

Select one:

a. Consumer behavior

b. Target marketing

c. Product Differentiation

d. Psychographic segmentation

Clear my choice

Question 3. Some companies switch from being solely product-centered to being more ________ centered.

Select one:

a. marketing

b. competency

c. strategy

d. customer-segment

Clear my choice

Question 4. Marketing strategies are often designed to influence _______________ and lead to profitable exchanges.

Select one:

a. Sales strategies

b. Export strategies

c. Advertising strategies

d. Consumer decision making

Clear my choice

Question 5. ______ is to evaluate each segment’s attractiveness and select one or more of the market segments.

Select one:

a. Market evaluation

b. Market targeting

c. Market positioning

d. Market segmentation

Clear my choice

Question 6. Buying goods and services for further processing or for use in the production process refers to _________ markets

Select one:

a. International markets

b. Consumer markets

c. Business markets

d. Government markets

Clear my choice

Question 7. ________ markets include a wide variety of profit and nonprofit organizations, such as hospitals, government agencies, and schools, which provide goods and services for the benefit of society.

Select one:

a. Business-to-business (Industrial)

b. Institutional

c. Consumer

d. Reseller

Clear my choice

Question 8. What is the last stage of the consumer decision process?

Select one:

a. post purchase behavior

b. alternative evaluation

c. purchase

d. problem recognition

Clear my choice

Question 9. _______ divides buyers into different groups based on their social class, lifestyle, and personality characteristics.

Select one:

a. Psychographic segmentation

b. Geographic segmentation

c. Demographic segmentation

d. Behavior segmentation

Clear my choice

Question 10. The underlying concept of ______ is to identify market segments, select one or more, and develop products and marketing mixes tailored to each selected segment.

Select one:

a. mass marketing

b. product-variety marketing

c. target marketing

d. macromarketing

Clear my choice

Question 11. How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use? What is a starting point of a buyer’s behavior?

Select one:

a. Stimulus-response Model

b. Belief

c. Post purchase feeling

d. Subculture

Clear my choice

Question 12. Listing alternatives that will solve the problem at hand and determining the characteristics of each occurs during which stage of the final consumer’s decision process?

Select one:

a. Information search

b. Post purchase

c. Evaluation of alternatives

d. Purchase

Clear my choice

Question 13. You purchase cleaning supplies for your custodial help regularly. It is showing which buying situation?

Select one:

a. Straight rebuy

b. Consumer buy

c. Modified straight rebuy

d. Modified rebuy

Clear my choice

Question 14. While buying milk which kind of behaviour is displayed by a person?

Select one:

a. Extensive problem solving behaviour

b. None of the above

c. Variety seeking behaviour

d. Routinized buying behaviour

Clear my choice

For each target market, a firm develops a ________. The offering is positioned in the minds of the target buyers as delivering some central benefits.

Select one:

a. niche offering

b. segment offering

c. value offering

d. market offering

Question 15. Holistic marketers achieve profitable growth by expanding their customer share, ________, and capturing customer lifetime value.

Select one:

a. renewing a customer base

b. building customer loyalty

c. milking the market for product desires

d. undermining competitive competencies

Clear my choice

Question 16. For buyers of consumer durable products, what ‘customer care services’ can be planned as a manager of a firm marketing new brand of motorcycle.

Select one:

a. 0% finance scheme

b. Specified period warranties & Exchange offer

c. All of these

d. Easy monthly instalments & Free servicing

Clear my choice

Question 17. Mr. Sharma buys goods and services for use in the production of products that are sold and supplied to others. He is involved in ________.

Select one:

a. consumer buying behavior

b. post-purchase dissonance

c. business buyer behavior

d. retail buyer behavior

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Module III: Managing Product Strategies

Question 1. In __________ stage of the product life cycle sales peak

Select one:

a. Saturation

b. Decline

c. Growth

d. Introduction

Clear my choice

Question 2. Price competition starts to occur in ___________ phase of the product life cycle

Select one:

a. Saturation

b. Introduction

c. Decline

d. Growth

Clear my choice

Question 3. ________ means that services cannot be seen, tasted, felt, heard, or smelled before they are bought.

Select one:

a. Service perishability

b. Service intangibility

c. Service inseparability

d. Service heterogeneity

Clear my choice

Question 4. Which of the following statements about product-mix strategy is true?

Select one:

a. Adding new products to a product mix can help a company’s competitive position.

b. A retailer that carries books, toys, video games, and coffee would have a deeper product mix than a store that sells only cosmetics

c. A store that sells nothing but t-shirts has a broad product mix.

d. All of the different flavors of Jell-O gelatin would be an example of a product mix.

Clear my choice

Question 5. In this stage of the product life cycle, advertising and promotion are aimed at retaining existing customers and persuading customers to switch from competitor products

Select one:

a. Growth

b. Saturation

c. Maturity

d. Introduction

Clear my choice

Question 6. ________ is the firm’s tangible offering to the market.

Select one:

a. packaging

b. sales support team

c. service offer

d. product

Clear my choice

Question 7. In _______________ stage of the product life cycle profits peak

Select one:

a. Introduction

b. Decline

c. Maturity

d. Growth

Clear my choice

Question 8. All of the following are accurate descriptions of new product ideas, except which one?

Select one:

a. Customers must be careful not to rely too heavily on customer input when developing new products.

b. New product development starts with idea generation.

c. Some companies use brainstorming exercises that expand people’s minds and generate new ideas around the client’s problem.

d. At the beginning of the process, carefully scrutinize each idea and throw far-fetched and impractical ones out the window.

Clear my choice

Question 9. Product mix ________ refers to the number of different product lines the company carries.

Select one:

a. length

b. height

c. width

d. depth

Clear my choice

Question 10. Advertising campaigns can help to create name recognition, brand knowledge, and maybe even some brand preference. Brands are maintained not only by advertising but by the ________.

Select one:

a. word-of-mouth elements

b. product mix

c. brand experience

d. marketing experience

Clear my choice

A Company can expand its product line in which way?

Select one:

a. line mixing

b. internal marketing

c. line filling

d. product mix

Question 11. Bread and milk are ____________

Select one:

a. Unsought products

b. Shopping products

c. Convenience products

d. Specialty Products

Clear my choice

Question 12. _______ are consumer products and services with unique characteristics or brand identification for which a significant group of buyers are willing to make a special purchase effort.

Select one:

a. Unsought products

b. Specialty products

c. Industrial products

d. Shopping products

Clear my choice

Question 13. ________ can be produced and marketed as a product

Select one:

a. Information

b. Organizations

c. Celebrities

d. Durable goods

Clear my choice

Question 14. One of the jobs of marketers is ____________ and to create consumer perceptions that the product is worth purchasing.

Select one:

a. To do marketing surveys

b. To differentiate their products from those of competitors

c. To make products easily visible and available

d. To promote sales of products

Clear my choice

Question mark products in the Boston Consulting Group matrix are usually in ________ stage of their product life cycle

Select one:

a. Growth

b. Introduction

c. Maturity

d. Decline

Question 15. Adding new features to a product is advocated by ___________

Select one:

a. Production Approach

b. Marketing Approach

c. Product Approach

d. Selling Approach

Clear my choice

Question 16. A clothing marketer is planning to launch an existing brand name into a new product category. Which brand development strategy should be implemented?

Select one:

a. rebranding

b. brand extension

c. multibranding

d. line extension

Clear my choice

Question 17. Which of the following is/are product life cycle extension strategies?

Select one:

a. Market development

b. Product development and unrelated diversification

c. Product development

d. Market development and product development

Clear my choice

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Module IV: Identifying Pricing Methods and Strategies-

‘Mark-up’ pricing is based on ___ cost.

Select one:

a. indirect cost

b. fixed cost

c. direct cost

d. variable cost

Question 1. ________ markets are made up of members of the distribution chain.

Select one:

a. Channel

b. Consumer

c. Institutional

d. Business-to-business (industrial)

Clear my choice

Question 2. A distribution channel includes distributors, wholesalers, retailers, and agents that _____________ the product or service to the buyer or user.

Select one:

a. display, sell, or deliver

b. display

c. deliver

d. sell

Clear my choice

Question 3. Intermediaries make possible the flow of products from producers to buyers by performing three basic functions of ____

Select one:

a. buying, sorting, and financing

b. assorting, storing, and sorting

c. transactional, logistical, and facilitating

d. production, transmission, display

Clear my choice

Question 4. The combination of succession stages of production and distribution under a single ownership is ____

Select one:

a. corporate vertical marketing system

b. forward integration

c. horizontal marketing system

d. backward integration

Clear my choice

Question 5. _____ is the term for the volume of products sold that, at a given price, will cover the company’s costs.

Select one:

a. target profit

b. breakeven point

c. equilibrium point

d. match point

Clear my choice

Question 6. How many levels of intermediaries are there in a direct sales channel?

Select one:

a. one

b. two

c. zero

d. three

Clear my choice

Question 7. In ________ pricing approach a low initial price is set to attract a large number of buyers quickly and win a large market share.

Select one:

a. Leader

b. Market-skimming

c. Market-penetration

d. Value-based

Clear my choice

Question 8. _________________ helps a company to promote, sell, and distribute its goods to final buyers.

Select one:

a. Suppliers

b. Competitor networks

c. Marketing intermediaries

d. Service representatives

Clear my choice

Question 9. When there is trouble between different levels in a channel like a wholesaler and manufacturer this is called ___

Select one:

a. diagonal conflict

b. multi level conflict

c. horizontal conflict

d. vertical conflict

Clear my choice

Question 10. Which of the following is not a market-based pricing method?

Select one:

a. customer value pricing

b. going-rate pricing

c. contribution pricing

d. psychological price barriers

Clear my choice

Question 11. One of the jobs of marketers is ____________ and to create consumer perceptions that the product is worth purchasing.

Select one:

a. To differentiate their products from those of competitors

b. To promote sales of products

c. To make products easily visible and available

d. To do marketing surveys

Clear my choice

Question 12. Bread and milk are ____________

Select one:

a. Specialty Products

b. Convenience products

c. Unsought products

d. Shopping products

Clear my choice

Question 13. ________ can be produced and marketed as a product

Select one:

a. Information

b. Celebrities

c. Organizations

d. Durable goods

Clear my choice

Question 14. _______ are consumer products and services with unique characteristics or brand identification for which a significant group of buyers are willing to make a special purchase effort.

Select one:

a. Shopping products

b. Specialty products

c. Industrial products

d. Unsought products

Clear my choice

Question mark products in the Boston Consulting Group matrix are usually in ________ stage of their product life cycle

Select one:

a. Growth

b. Introduction

c. Maturity

d. Decline

Question 15. Companies form a ________ to collect information about each customer’s past transactions, demographics, psychographics, and media and distribution preferences

Select one:

a. marketing network

b. holistic union

c. supply-chain network

d. sales network

Clear my choice

Question 16. John recently opened a sandwich shop but he is not sure what prices to charge for his various products. His customers tell him that they would never pay more than £4.00 for a sandwich. Then he sets his top price at £4.00. What kind of pricing strategy is he using?

Select one:

a. contribution pricing

b. going-rate pricing

c. customer value pricing

d. psychological price barriers

Clear my choice

Question 17. When a company distributes its products through a channel structure that includes one or more resellers, this is known as ________.

Select one:

a. integrated marketing

b. multi-level marketing

c. Indirect marketing

d. direct marketing

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Module V: Managing Channel Dynamics & Integrated Marketing Communication

Question 1. Marketing planning is concerned with ____

Select one:

a. Planning the amount the placement of newspaper ads

b. Planning sales force size and deployment

c. Planning consignment sales contracts to be offered

d. All of the above

Clear my choice

Question 2. The largest medium for direct response is______

Select one:

a. Telemarketing

b. Door-to-door

c. Broadcast

d. Mail

Clear my choice

Question 3. __ is the non paid form of promotion

Select one:

a. Personal selling

b. Public relations

c. Advertising

d. Direct selling

Clear my choice

Question 4. The _____ is a written document that describes the overall marketing strategy and programs developed for an organization, product line, or brand.

Select one:

a. marketing plan

b. marketing audit

c. communications plan

d. promotional plan

Clear my choice

Question 5. According to the concept of _____ , all of an organization’s marketing and promotional elements and activities communicate with its customers.

Select one:

a. the marketing mix

b. integrated marketing communications

c. the promotional mix

d. exchange

Clear my choice

Question 6. Promotion mix is the combination of promotional tools used by a company to _____ with its audiences.

Select one:

a. Plan

b. Help

c. Purchasing Decision

d. Communicate

Clear my choice

Question 7. The first step in the Integrated Marketing Communication planning process is _______

Select one:

a. A review of the marketing plan

b. Budget determination

c. The situation analysis

d. Specification of communications objectives

Clear my choice

Question 8. A marketing plan usually includes _____

Select one:

a. A corporate mission statement

b. A detailed situation analysis

c. Job descriptions and job specifications

d. A media schedule

Clear my choice

Question 9. Advertising plays an important role in _____

Select one:

a. Information

b. Highlighting Specific Features

c. Brand image

d. All of the above

Clear my choice

Question 10. What is the next stage in the IMC planning process, once marketing and communication objectives have been set?

Select one:

a. Implementation of those objectives

b. Media selection scheduling

c. Budget determination

d. Recruitment of marketing and promotion personnel

Clear my choice

What is triple bottom line?

Select one:

a. An accounting tool that looks at the impact on people, planet and profits

b. An accounting tool that looks at cost, profit and loss

c. A management strategy which focuses on corporate social responsibility

d. A management strategy which states all the attention should be on profits

Question 11. Prior to the movement to integrated marketing communications, the promotional function in most companies was dominated by _________

Select one:

a. Sales promotion

b. Publicity

c. Mass media advertising

d. Public relations

Clear my choice

Question 12. _________ uses direct communication with consumers to generate a response in the form of an order, a request for further information, or a visit to a retail outlet.

Select one:

a. Sales promotion

b. Personal selling

c. Direct marketing

d. Advertising

Clear my choice

Question 13. Integrated marketing communications is a concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a________ plan.

Select one:

a. coherent

b. comprehensive

c. integrated

d. complete

Clear my choice

Question 14. ___________ represents all of the communications that a marketer may use in the market place.

Select one:

a. Promotion

b. Advertising

c. Public relation

d. Sales promotion

Clear my choice

Which type of sales promotion uses free samples, coupons, and rebates?

Select one:

a. sales force promotion

b. consumer promotion

c. trade promotion

d. place promotion

Question 15. Promotion mix includes tools like ____

Select one:

a. Advertising, sales promotion, Personal selling, Distribution network, and direct marketing

b. Advertising, product development, Sales promotion, Personal selling and direct marketing

c. Product, price, place, public relations

d. Advertising, Public Relations, Sales Promotion, Personal Selling, Direct Marketing

Clear my choice

Question 16.Triple bottom line audit is _____

Select one:

a. An audit of the all Sporting resources of enterprise

b. A social , economic and environmental audit

c. An audit of three major financial projects of a business

d. An audit by the Physical Health of the employees

Clear my choice

Question 17. Internet Marketing does NOT deal with _____

Select one:

a. Interactive Marketing

b. E-mail Marketing and Web advertising

c. Display Advertising

d. Advertising

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Assignment 2

Case Study

Case: Cadbury-Kraft Focuses on Consumer Behaviour Inside Shops

Shelves full of Oreo biscuits at a local Mumbai store are described as a “blue wall” by visiting Cadbury-Kraft executives. The food giant has attempted to replicate the metaphoric “blue-wall” in many stores in Mumbai and other cities in a bid to drive sales. The results have been encouraging. Since its launch, Oreo has garnered an over six percent market share in the lucrative and intensely fought Rs 4,000-crore premium biscuit market, where it competes with Britannia’s Treat-O and Bourbon, Parle Products’ Kreams and Hide & Seek, and ITC’s Sunfeast, among others.

What Cadbury-Kraft has done with Oreo is part of a game that includes other brands and categories as well. The firm aggressively pushed a marketing & sales programme that has targeted shoppers in the top metros and cities of the country. Branded visicoolers, a range of dispensers developed by local and international design experts, are part of the company’s efforts to make the overall shopping experience exciting for consumers. The firm has refurbished packaging of its brands such as chewing gum brand Bubbaloo and pushed promotions to drive sales. Cadbury-Kraft focused on in-store display and placement of products after studying shopper behaviour and preferences at the top 50,000 high-end groceries, food stores and chemists within its retail universe of over 700,000 stores in India.

Studying consumers

The focus on behaviour of consumers in shops is important because they make the final purchase decision there. How the product is positioned, its packaging, pricing, etc. goes a long way in determining whether consumers will buy the product. The 50,000 outlets Cadbury-Kraft focused on in India to stock one or more of these products: chocolates which include Cadbury Dairy Milk, Celebrations, Bournville, 5 Star, Perk, and Gems; confectionary such as Bubbaloo, Eclairs, and Halls; biscuits such as Oreo and powdered beverages that include Tang and Bournvita.

The company has put in place consumer promotions within stores in key categories such as chocolates and biscuits to help drive sales at these outlets. While the combined Cadbury-Kraft business remains smaller than other strategic markets within Kraft Foods, which was split into two – a $32-billion snacking powerhouse and a $16-billion grocery business – India is still key. 

Cadbury-Kraft’s main rivals include key food companies in India, such as Nestle, which own Maggi and Kit Kat; Britannia; HUL, makers of Knorr, owners of Kissan and Bru; Parle Products, ITC and GlaxoSmithKline with its Horlicks, Viva, and Maltova brands. Like most of its rivals, the bulk of Cadbury-Kraft’s sales come from traditional retail stores. Modern trade or organised retail constitutes only one per cent of its universe, but the company has been keen to push this number up, given that packaged foods as a category show greater traction in such retail outlets.

Cadbury-Kraft has banked on technology, much like HUL, to help it replenish stock quickly at stores, both traditional and modern. The frontline sales force have been upgraded with handhelds to capture store orders, which are linked to the distributor billing software. Distributors are linked to company portals to manage auto replenishment of inventory. The Mumbai-based company is looking to increase its retail footprint beyond the over 700,000 stores in 5,200 towns that it now reaches. This number will be ramped up in rural areas as well.

Question 1 : A retailer’s role in the field of personal consumption is that of _______ and ______.

Select one:

a. distributor, facilitator

b. provider, facilitator

c. distributor, provider

d. giver, taker

Clear my choice

Question 2. ____ is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world; whereas _____ is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something.

Select one:

a. Attitude, Belief

b. Perception, Belief

c. Value, Ethics

d. Perception, Attitude

Clear my choice

Question 3. If an individual is loyal to a particular store, he would probably follow _______ type of decision-making.

Select one:

a. brand first and retail outlet second

b. Retail outlet first, brand second

c. None of these

d. Brand and retail outlet simultaneously

Clear my choice

Question 4. _________ are people whose attitudes, behavior, beliefs, opinions, preferences, and values are used by an individual as the basis for his or her judgment; whereas ________ referes to group of two or more people related by blood, marriage or adoption, living together in a household.

Select one:

a. celebrity, reference group

b. reference group, family

c. family, reference group

d. salespersons, family

Clear my choice

Question 5. Companies like Cadbury-Kraft that practice both a reactive and proactive marketing orientation are implementing a ________ and are likely to be the most successful.

Select one:

a. competitive, customer focus

b. total market orientation

c. external focus

d. customer focus

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Business Economics BBA

Business Economics BBA

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1              State and explain Circular Flow of Income and Expenditure.

2              Describe the Price and Output Determination under Monopoly.

3              Critically examine the Liquidity Preference Theory of Interest.

4              Describe  Price  and  Output  Determination  under  Monopolistic Competition.

5              State and explain importance and limitations of Micro Economics.

6              What is an Economic problem? Give examples.

7              Explain the law of supply.

8              Explain the Revenue concepts. Prepare a Revenue Schedule and draw curves.

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Case study

Marks – 10

Case Study: Government intervention

In  Germany  in  2009  there  was  considerable  debate  about  the  extent  to  which  the government should be intervening in the economy.

 For example, its citizens were worried about the future of Opel, a German car brand that was part of the ailing General Motors. Some  wanted  the  government  to  make  sure  jobs  were  saved  no  matter  what.  Others,  however, were more hesitant and worried about becoming the government becoming too interventionist.  Traditionally  since  the  Second  World  War  the  German  government  has seen  itself  as  a  referee  in  market  issues  and  has  avoided  trying  to  control  parts  of  the  economy.  It  would  regulate  anti-competitive  behaviour,  for  example,  but  not  try  to  run many industries. However in the recession of 2009 when the economy was shrinking the government was forced to spend more to stimulate demand and had to intervene heavily to  save  the  banking  sector  from  collapse.  The  government  also  had  to  offer  aid  to  businesses to keep them alive.

Q.No 1: What are the possible benefits of a government intervening in an economy?

Q.No 2: What prompted greater intervention by the German government in 2009?

Q.No 3: What would determine whether the German continued to intervene on this scale in the future?

Q4. Arguments against government intervention in an economy:

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Q1. Customers are normally classified as part of a firm’s:

 (A): contextual environment.

 (B): internal environment.

 (C): operational environment.

 (D): general environment.

Q2. Microeconomic influences are defined as those which:

 (A): affect smaller businesses.

 (B): are related to changes in economic aggregates.

 (C): operate at the level of the firm, industry or market.

 (D): operate on an economy-wide basis.

Q3. Economic scarcity refers to:

 (A): a general shortage of goods available for consumption.

 (B): shortages of a particular good available for consumption.

 (C): finite demands for resources coupled with infinite resources.

 (D): infinite demands for resources coupled with finite resources.

Q4. If the government has an extra £5billion to spend on healthcare or education over the next 2 years and chooses to spend it on healthcare, then the ‘real cost’ of this decision is:

 (A): £2.5 billion per year of extra spending.

 (B): £5 billion spent on healthcare.

 (C): £5billion spent on healthcare divided by the size of the population.

 (D): £5 billion not spent on education.

Q5. An economy in which most decisions on resource allocation are taken by the government is known as:

 (A): a capitalist economy.

 (B): a command economy.

 (C): a free enterprise economy.

 (D): a market-based economy.

Q6. Which of the following does not necessarily apply to a market?

 (A): It involves the processes of demand and supply.

 (B): It is found in a given geographical location.

 (C): It involves interaction between buyers and sellers.

 (D): It is a mechanism designed to effect exchange.

Q7. Which of the following is NOT TRUE of the process of outsourcing?

 (A): It results in the sharing of risk between both companies.

 (B): It allows the outsourcing company complete control over production.

 (C): It can cuts production costs for the outsourcing company.

 (D): It allows the outsourcing firm to concentrate on it’s core competencies.

Q8. Which of the following is NOT TRUE of a public limited company?

 (A): There has to be a minimum of 2 shareholders.

 (B): There has to be a minimum of £50,000 of authorized share capital.

 (C): There has to be 1 director.

 (D): A certificate is needed from the Registrar of Companies.

Q9. When a company outsources production but the employees of the sub-contractor company do not put in sufficient effort, this is an example of:

 (A): division of labour.

 (B): vertical integration.

 (C): adverse selection.

 (D): moral hazard.

Q 10. If you hired a painter to decorate your house, you would be:

 (A): the principal.

 (B): an intermediary.

 (C): the agent.

 (D): a network.

Q 11. Vertical integration refers to the process:

 (A): where a company undertakes successive stages of the production process.

 (B): where a company diversifies into other markets.

 (C): where a company opens a branch overseas.

 (D): where production takes place as part of a team.

Q 12. In the Resource Based View of the firm the firms’ resources are divided into three types. Which of the following is NOT one of those types?

 (A): Physical capital resources.

 (B): Organisational capital resources.

 (C): Land physical resources.

 (D): Human capital resources.

Q 13. Which of the following would make a firm MORE likely to outsource an activity?

 (A): The activity is standardised.

 (B): The activity is very important for the organisation.

 (C): Specific assets are required for the activity.

 (D): The activity took place only infrequently.

Q 14. Which of the following is NOT an organisational structure recognized by the theoretical literature?

 (A): Divisional structure.

 (B): Government organisation.

 (C): Functional organisation.

 (D): Matrix organisation.

Q 15. A demand function for a product is constructed on the assumption that all the following remain constant except:

 (A): the price of alternative goods.

 (B): consumers’ tastes.

 (C): disposable income.

 (D): the price of the product.

Q 16. Which of the following would shift the demand curve for a specific brand of ice-cream to the left?

 (A): A fall in the price of the above brand.

 (B): The onset of hot weather.

 (C): A fall in the price of a rival brand.

 (D): An increase in disposable income.

Q 17. Which of the below conditions will result in the appearance of a ‘Giffen Good’?

 (A): The good is inferior.

 (B): The good is inferior and following a fall in price the income effect is greater than the substitution effect.

 (C): The good is seen as unpopular.

 (D): The good takes up a relatively small amount of consumers’ disposable income.

Q 18. If other things remain constant, how will an increase in the price of paint most likely affect the demand for and the price of paintbrushes?

 (A): Demand will decrease, but price will increase.

 (B): Both demand and price will decrease.

 (C): Demand will increase, but price will decrease.

 (D): Both demand and price will increase.

Q 19. A likely cause of the market supply curve shifting to the right would be:

 (A): an improvement in productivity.

 (B): businesses becoming less confident of the future economic climate.

 (C): the rise in the market price of substitute products.

 (D): a rise in the price of factor inputs

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Q 20. In a short run productive situation where more units of labour are combined with a fixed amount of capital, the value of the marginal product of labour will decline because:

 (A): the fixed factor becomes over utilised.

 (B): the workers just aren’t working hard enough.

 (C): the fixed factor is under utilised.

 (D): the cost of capital is rising.

Q 21. Which of the following would be seen as a short run variable cost for a shoe manufacturer?

 (A): Electricity for running the machines.

 (B): Loans taken out to buy the machines.

 (C): Business rates on the factory.

 (D): The fee paid to an advertising agency.

Q 22. The short run average total cost curve is minimised when:

 (A): average fixed cost has stopped declining.

 (B): average variable cost is also at a minimum.

 (C): the fall in average fixed cost is balanced by the rise in short run average variable cost.

 (D): the firm is producing with spare capacity.

Q 23. If the firm is maximising profit, which of the below is true?

 (A): Output is such that average revenue and average cost are furthest apart.

 (B): Total revenue is maximised.

 (C): Total cost equals total revenue.

 (D): Average cost is minimised.

Q 24. The firm should shut down in the short run if:

 (A): total revenue only just covers variable costs.

 (B): losses would be greater than fixed costs.

 (C): only making normal profit.

 (D): demand is falling.

Q 25. Which of the following would you expect to increase as a result of a very small increase in output? a) Raw materials b) Indirect labour c) Depreciation

 (A): a, b & c.

 (B): a & b only.

 (C): a only.

 (D): b & c only.

Q 26. The concept of ‘economies of scope’ is best characterised as the firm:

 (A): being able of easily exit the industry if demand where to fall.

 (B): having the capability of producing a range of output.

 (C): having a vision as to the future.

 (D): being able to produce a single product at lowest possible cost.

Q 27. The ‘long run’ is a production period during which:

 (A): all inputs can be varied.

 (B): most inputs can be varied.

 (C): all inputs can be varied other than plant size.

 (D): at least one input is fixed in quantity.

Q 28. The divorce of ownership from control refers to the:

 (A): demise of the joint-stock company.

 (B): power of shareholders over management.

 (C): observation that managers are unlikely to be shareholders.

 (D): observation that shareholders as owners delegate the running of the firm to managers.

Q 29. In Baumol’s model, the size of the profit constraint faced by an individual firm is likely to be relatively high in all the below cases with the exception of when:

 (A): the overall state of the market is buoyant.

 (B): profits declared by the firm in previous time periods were high.

 (C): profits made by rival firms are increasing.

 (D): the number of shareholders increase as major current shareholders release their shares.

Q 30.Consumer surplus comes about as a result of:

 (A): consumers having a strong desire for the good.

 (B): the consumer having an excess of disposable income.

 (C): the producer charging a different price for each unit consumed.

 (D): the consumer being willing to pay more than the market price.

Q 31.The value of price elasticity as price falls on a downward sloping linear demand curve that starts at a point on the price axis and finishes at a point on the quantity axis:

 (A): is always elastic so long as the curve is relatively shallow.

 (B): will become increasingly less elastic as you move down the curve.

 (C): is constant due to the linearity of the demand curve.

 (D): is always inelastic so long as the slope of the demand curve is relatively steep.

Q 32. The price elasticity of demand for a product will be lower:

 (A): the greater the proportion of income spent on the product.

 (B): the smaller the number of close complements.

(C): the smaller the number of close substitutes.

 (D): the higher the initial price.

Q 33. As the price of cinema tickets increases a study shows the value of price cross elasticity of demand between cinema attendance and popcorn consumption to be equal to + 1.5. Which of the following statements is true?

 (A): Cinema attendance and popcorn consumption are seen as substitutes.

 (B): The demand curve for cinema attendance will have shifted to the left.

 (C): The demand curve for popcorn will have shifted to the right.

 (D): If the price of popcorn had increased rather than the price of cinema admission then the price cross elasticity of demand would almost certainly have a lower value than + 1.5.

Q 34. A study shows the price elasticity of demand for the purchase of tickets to travel on a specific bus route to be price inelastic to a value of 0.7. Which of the below statements is untrue?

 (A): Price elasticity is likely to be higher during those hours when customers must use the service to travel to work.

 (B): An increase in price of 10% would lead to a fall in demand of 7%.

 (C): If a rival bus company providing a similar service at a similar price along the same route were to close, the above elasticity would almost certainly fall.

 (D): By decreasing price the company would loose revenue.

Q 35. If the profit constraint in Baumol’s model were to rise, which of the below are untrue?

 (A): To counter the necessity to make more profit the firm will increase sales by lowering price.

 (B): Price charged rises if the constraint were ‘operative’.

 (C): There would be no impact upon price so long as the constraint remained ‘inoperative’.

 (D): Total revenue falls if the constraint were ‘operative’.

Q 36. The impact of an increase in variable cost in Baumol’s model with an ‘operative’ profit constraint is that the:

 (A): firm may raise price and decrease output, yet would do so to a relatively lesser degree than a profit maximising firm in a similar situation.

 (B): firm is able to ignore the change in cost and maintain price.

 (C): firm will have to raise price.

 (D): firm will decrease price to increase sales to meet the higher profit.

Q 37. A ‘discretionary investment’ in Williamson’s model represents:

 (A): a way of spending surplus profit.

 (B): a gift by managers to shareholders by means of an additional dividend.

 (C): an additional investment undertaken by managers in excess of that required for the normal operation of the firm.

 (D): a free and anonymous gift by managers to charity.

Q 38. ‘Organisation slack’ exists in an organisation when:

 (A): sales are in decline.

 (B): shareholders do not have sufficient knowledge and expertise to correctly monitor the performance of managers.

 (C): a profit constraint is thought to be too high by both managers and shareholders.

 (D): costs are higher than necessary for a given level of activity.

Q 39. In Marris’s model the goals of managers and shareholders are seen to be more compatible than in other managerial theories because:

 (A): shareholders are seen to be more influential over management than in other models.

 (B): managers and shareholders both derive benefit from the growth of the firm.

 (C): shareholders are seen to be so lacking in real information as to how the firm should be run they are always satisfied with the performance of management.

 (D): management is seen to be more fragmented and less powerful.

Q 40. The essential feature of a Behavioural Theory of the firm is that:

 (A): the various groups or stakeholders within the firm all work harmoniously together to their mutual benefit.

 (B): emphasis is placed upon the complexity of organisations and the differing interests of its stakeholders.

 (C): shareholders are seen to be more influential over management.

 (D): profit is seen to be less important than in other theories.

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Industrial Relations & Labor Laws (EDL 309) -Semester III

Industrial Relations & Labor Laws (EDL 309) -Semester III

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Module I : Industrial Relations

Case study

A union or a similar collective group of employees is usually seen by its members as a way for employees to negotiate and communicate with their employers or management on a more level playing field than if each employee were to approach management individually. In line with this goal, the term “collective bargaining” refers to the actual process in which workers gather, and together bargain or make a deal with management on the key terms and conditions of employment.

Collective bargaining generally is aimed at making a deal or bargain with management that addresses a wide range of concerns in a particular workplace. This type of deal is a labor contract and is often referred to as a “collective bargaining agreement” or CBA.

Examples of some of the many topics covered in CBAs between management and employees include employee wages, hours, benefits, time off, raises, promotions, and disciplinary issues. However, CBAs also cover a number of additional topics ranging from worker safety to insurance, and can vary depending on the industry or workplace.

CBAs and the Law

Many of the legal issues involving unions are covered by the federal law known as the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA). The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is the federal agency charged with dealing with labor disputes when they become legal battles, and is also charged with taking enforcement action when violations occur.

In general, under the NLRA, employees have the right to join unions and collectively bargain. Notably, however, there are some types of employers and industries that are not covered by the Act. Some examples of these excluded industries include government workers, agricultural laborers, and independent contractors. For those employers and industries to which it applies, however, the NLRA prohibits employers from interfering with or preventing employees from organizing or engaging in activities that relate to organizing or forming a union.

In reality, the language of the law protects a wide range of employee activities and efforts to get together to improve their working conditions or their terms of employment. In other words, the protections afforded by the law are not limited to situations involving unions or face-to-face bargaining.

The “Good Faith” Collective Bargaining Requirement

Both sides of the employment relationship are required to undertake what is known as “good faith” bargaining. This term by its nature is pretty unclear, as evidenced by the large number of cases and disputes that end up with the NLRB involving whether one side or the other bargained in good faith. However, some common threads and generalities can be made about what are definitely not examples of good faith bargaining:

• Refusing to meet and bargain with the other party;

• Changing the terms of a bargain (or existing working conditions) unilaterally;

• Engaging in “sham” negotiations with the other side.

These are just some examples of conduct that would indicate a lack of good faith by one of the parties.

Unions’ Duty of Fair Representation

Employees should also be aware that their union has the responsibility to represent its members in a fair and equal manner. This doesn’t mean that the union has to do everything that individual members desire, nor act on their every wish. What it does mean, however, is that each member must be treated equally and in a fair manner.

If you feel your rights as a member have not been upheld equally or fairly by the union, there are typically grievance procedures that should be the first avenue to seek relief. If those procedures do not exist or have been exhausted, it may be time to consult with a local attorney specializing in employment law who will be able to advise on the matter, and if necessary, assist with bringing an action with the NLRB or the appropriate court.

No Deal! When Collective Bargaining Falls Short

As noted above, it is not uncommon for disputes to arise before, during, and after the negotiation process. When this occurs the dispute typically ends up in the hands of the NLRB which handles many labors disputes each year. The NLRB investigates claims and makes a determination as to whether further proceedings are warranted.

Need Legal Help with a Labor Issue? Find an Attorney Near You

Labor relations are complicated and there are often disputes between employers and their workers that require legal action. Unions typically offer legal representation to their members, but there may be instances where you’ll need to go it alone. Check out FindLaw’s directory of labor law attorneys to find one near you.

Article 43A of the Constitution of India deals with ‘Participation of workers in management of industries’ and falls under Part IV – Directive Principles of State Policy.

The State shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry.

This article was inserted by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 9 (w.e.f. 3-1-1977).

The High-powered Expert Committee on Companies and MRTP Acts headed by Justice Rajinder Sachar of the Delhi High Court has also made certain recommendations about provisions to be made for workers’ participation in management of companies. (Vide paragraphs 18.127 to 18.143 of the Report). Parliament may take early steps to implement some of the recommendations made by the said Committee. It is significant that there is no recommendation made even in this Report about the right of trade unions to contest winding-up petitions. If the workers are issued shares then they would no doubt be entitled to participate in the winding-up proceedings as contributories. This may be one way of solving the problem by legislative means.

A process by which subordinate employees, either individually or collectively, become involved in one or more aspects of organizational decision making within the enterprises in which they work.

Workers’ participation in management is an essential ingredient of Industrial democracy. The concept of workers’ participation in management is based on Human Relations approach to Management which brought about a new set of values to labour and management. Traditionally the concept of Workers’ Participation in Management (WPM) refers to participation of non-managerial employees in the decision-making process of the organization. Workers’ participation is also known as ‘labour participation’ or ‘employee participation’ in management. In Germany it is known as co-determination while in Yugoslavia it is known as self-management. The International Labour Organization has been encouraging member nations to promote the scheme of Workers’ Participation in Management.

Workers’ participation in management implies mental and emotional involvement of workers in the management of Enterprise. It is considered as a mechanism where workers have a say in the decision-

The philosophy underlying workers’ participation stresses:

1. democratic participation in decision-making;

2. maximum employer-employee collaboration;

3. minimum state intervention;

4. realisation of a greater measure of social justice;

5. greater industrial efficiency; and

6. higher level of organisational health and effectiveness.

It has been varyingly understood and practised as a system of joint consultation in industry; as a form of labour management cooperation; as a recognition of the principle of co-partnership, and as an instrument of industrial democracy. Consequently, participation has assumed different forms, varying from mere voluntary sharing of information by management with the workers to formal participation by the latter in actual decision-making process of management.

The concept of WPM is a broad and complex one. Depending on the socio-political environment and cultural conditions, the scope and contents of participation change.

International Institute of Labour Studies:

WPM is the participation resulting from the practices which increase the scope for employees’ share of influence in decision-making at different tiers of organizational hierarchy with concomitant (related) assumption of responsibility.

ILO:

Workers’ participation, may broadly be taken to cover all terms of association of workers and their representatives with the decision-making process, ranging from exchange of information, consultations, decisions and negotiations, to more institutionalized forms such as the presence of workers’ member on management or supervisory boards or even management by workers themselves (as practiced in Yugoslavia).

The main implications of workers’ participation in management as summarized by ILO:

• Workers have ideas which can be useful;

• Workers may work more intelligently if they are informed about the reasons for and then intention of decisions that are taken in a participative atmosphere

• According to Keith Davis, Participation refers to the mental and emotional involvement of a person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to group goals and share the responsibility of achievement.

• According to Walpole, Participation in Management gives the worker a sense of importance, pride and accomplishment; it gives him the freedom of opportunity for self-expression; a feeling of belongingness with the place of work and a sense of workmanship and creativity.

• Clegg says, “It implies a situation where workers representatives are, to some extent, involved in the process of management decision making, but where the ultimate power is in the hands of the management”.

• According to Dr. Davis, “it is a mental and emotional involvement of a person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to goals and share responsibilities in them”.

Objectives of Workers Participation in Management

The objectives of workers’ participation in management are as follows:

• To raise level of motivation of workers by closer involvement.

• To provide opportunity for expression and to provide a sense of importance to workers.

• To develop ties of understanding leading to better effort and harmony.

• To act on a device to counter-balance powers of managers.

• To act on a panacea for solving industrial relation problems.

Gujarat High Court

Gujarat Kamdar Sahakari Mandal … vs Ramkrishna Mills Ltd. on 7 April, 1994

The provisions of article 43A intended to herald industrial democracy and in the words of Krishna Iyer J., it marks the “end of industrial bonded labour”. The Constitutional mandate is, therefore, clear that, the management of the enterprises should not be left entirely in the hands of suppliers of capital, but the workers should also be entitled to participate in it because in a socialist pattern of society the enterprise, which is the centre of economic area, should be controlled not only by suppliers of capital but also by labour, The workers, therefore, have a special place in a socialist pattern of society. They are not mere vendors of toil. They are not a marketable commodity to be purchased by the owners of capital. They are producers of wealth as much as capital. They supply labour without which the capital would be impeded and they are at the least equal partners with capital in the enterprise. It is in the light of the aforesaid Constitutional philosophy, that the scheme which is put forward by the society of workers is required to be approached.

Specific of Purpose of Workers’ Participation

1. It helps in managing resistance to change which is inevitable. For the growth and development of industry, changes have to be welcomed, otherwise the organization will stagnate and be left behind. If the need for change is jointly felt by all partners of production its acceptance can be high. Workers’ participation in change strategy can facilitate acceptable solutions with a view to secure effective and smooth implementations of decisions.

2. Workers’ participation can encourage communication at all levels. Since both partners of production are involved in the decision-making there will be fewer changes of distortion and/ or failure in communicating the decision.

3. Joint decision- making ensures the there will be minimum industrial conflict an economic growth can be free form distracting strife.

4. Workers’ participation at the plant level can be seen as the first step to establishing democratic values in society at large.

Elements of Participation

The term “participation” has different meanings for different purposes in different situations. McGregor is of the view that participation is one of the most misunderstood idea that has emerged from the field of human relations. Keith Davis has defined the term “participation” as the mental and emotional involvement of a person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to group goals and share responsibilities in them. This definition envisages three important elements in participation. Firstly, it means mental and emotional involvement rather than mere physical activity; secondly, participation must motivate a person to contribute to a specific situation to invest his own resources, such as initiative, knowledge, creativity and ingenuity in the objectives of the organisation; and thirdly, it encourages people to share responsibility for a decision or activity. Sharing of responsibility commits people to ensure the success of the decision or activity.

Forms of Participation

Different forms of participation are discussed below:

Collective Bargaining: Collective bargaining results in collective agreements which lay down certain rules and conditions of service in an establishment. Such agreements are normally binding on the parties. Theoretically, collective bargaining is based on the principle of balance of power, but, in actual practice, each party tries to outbid the other and get maximum advantage by using, if necessary, threats and counterthreats like; strikes, lockouts and other direct actions. Joint consultation, on the other hand, is a particular technique which is intended to achieve a greater degree of harmony and cooperation by emphasising matters of common interest. Workers prefer to use the instrument of collective bargaining rather than ask for a share in management. Workers’ participation in the U.S.A has been ensured almost exclusively by means of collective agreements and their application and interpretation rather than by way of labour representation in management.

Works Councils: These are exclusive bodies of employees, assigned with different functions in the management of an enterprise. In West Germany, the works councils have various decision-making functions. In some countries, their role is limited only to receiving information about the enterprise. In Yugoslavia, these councils have wider decision-making powers in an enterprise like; appointment, promotion, salary fixation and also major investment decisions.

Joint Management Councils and Committees: Mainly these bodies are consultative and advisory, with decision-making being left to the top management. This system of participation is prevalent in many countries, including Britain and India. As they are consultative and advisory, neither the managements nor the workers take them seriously.

Board Representation: The role of a worker representative in the board of directors is essentially one of negotiating the worker’s interest with the other members of the board. At times, this may result in tension and friction inside the board room. The effectiveness of workers’ representative at the board depend upon his ability to participate in decision-making, his knowledge of the company affairs, his educational background, his level of understanding and also on the number of worker representatives in the Board.

Workers Ownership of Enterprise: Social self-management in Yugoslavia is an example of complete control of management by workers through an elected board and workers council. Even in such a system, there exist two distinct managerial and operative functions with different sets of persons to perform them. Though workers have the option to influence all the decisions taken at the top level, in actual practice, the board and the top management team assume a fairly independent role in taking major policy decisions for the enterprises, especially in economic matters.

Levels of Participation

Workers’ participation is possible at all levels of management; the only difference is that of degree and nature of application. For instance, it may be vigorous at lower level and faint at top level. Broadly speaking there is following five levels of participation:

1. Information participation: It ensures that employees are able to receive information and express their views pertaining to the matters of general economic importance.

2. Consultative participation: Here works are consulted on the matters of employee welfare such as work, safety and health. However, final decision always rests at the option of management and employees’ views are only of advisory nature.

3. Associative participation: It is extension of consultative participation as management here is under moral obligation to accept and implement the unanimous decisions of employees.

4. Administrative participation: It ensure greater share of works in discharge of managerial functions. Here, decision already taken by the management come to employees, preferably with alternatives for administration and employees have to select the best from those for implementation.

5. Decisive participation: Highest level of participation where decisions are jointly taken on the matters relation to production, welfare etc. is called decisive participation.

Pre-requisites for Effetive Participation

The pre-requisites for the success of any scheme of participative management are the following:

1. Firstly, there should be a strong, democratic and representative unionism for the success of participative management.

2. Secondly, there should be mutually-agreed and clearly-formulated objectives for participation to succeed.

3. Thirdly, there should be a feeling of participation at all levels.

4. Fourthly, there should be effective consultation of the workers by the management.

5. Fifthly, both the management and the workers must have full faith in the soundness of the philosophy underlying the concept of labour participation.

6. Sixthly, till the participative structure is fully accepted by the parties, legislative support is necessary to ensure that rights of each other are recognised and protected.

7. Seventhly, education and training make a significant contribution to the purposeful working of participative management.

8. Lastly, forums of participation, areas of participation and guidelines for implementation of decisions should be specific and there should be prompt follow-up action and feedback.

Question 1

“collective bargaining” refers to the actual process in which workers gather, and together bargain or make a deal with management on the key terms and conditions of employment.This statement is ___?

Select one:

a. True

b. Partially True

c. Wrong

d. Partially Wrong

Question 2

According to this case study , If you feel your rights as a member have not been upheld equally or fairly by the union, there are _____  that should be the first avenue to seek relief.

Select one:

a. Complaint Boxes

b. grievance procedures

c. Counsellers

d. None of the options

Question 3

As per this case study , Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA) between management and employees include__?

Select one:

a. employee wages, hours

b. benefits, time off, raises

c. promotions, and disciplinary issues

d. All of the options

Question 4

as per this case study , the correct form of NLRB is ?

Select one:

a. National Labor Regulations Board

b. Nationalised Labor Relations Board

c. National Labor Relations Board

d. National Legal Relations Board

Question 5

As per this Case Study , which of the following can be examples of conduct that would indicate a lack of good faith by one of the parties.

Select one:

a. Refusing to meet and bargain with the other party

b. Changing the terms of a bargain (or existing working conditions) unilaterally

c. Engaging in “sham” negotiations with the other side

d. All of the options

Question 6

A union of employees is usually seen by its members as a way for employees to_____  on a more level playing field than if each employee were to approach management individually.

Select one:

a. negotiate with employers

b. communicate with their employers or management

c. Both A & B

d. None of these

Question 7

Collective bargaining is aimed at making a deal or bargain with management that addresses a wide range of concerns in a particular workplace. This type of deal is a labor contract and is often referred to as ____?

Select one:

a. “Cooperative bargaining agreement” or CBA.

b. “collective bargaining agreement” or CBA.

c. “Cumulative bargaining agreement” or CBA.

d. None of these options

Question 8

Objectives of Workers Participation in Management is/are?

Select one:

a. To provide opportunity for expression and to provide a sense of importance to workers

b. To develop ties of understanding leading to better effort and harmony.

c. To raise level of motivation of workers by closer involvement

d. All of the options

Question 9

The philosophy underlying workers’ participation stresses on which of the following ?

Select one:

a. higher level of organisational health and effectiveness

b. democratic participation in decision-making

c. maximum employer-employee collaboration

d. ALL of the options

Question 10

_________of the Constitution of India deals with ‘Participation of workers in management of industries’

Select one:

a. Article 43A

b. Article 44

c. Article 20

d. Article 26

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MODULE II : TRADE UNION MOVEMENT IN INDIA

Case study

The Directive Principles of State Policy contained in Part IV, Articles 36-51 of the Indian constitution constitute the most interesting and enchanting part of the constitution.

The Directive Principles may be said to contain the philosophy of the constitution. The idea of directives being included in the constitution was borrowed from the constitution of Ireland. As the very term “Directives” indicate, the Directive principles are broad directives given to the state in accordance with which the legislative and executive powers of the state are to be exercised.

As Nehru observed, the governments will ignore the directives “Only at their own peril.” As India seeks to secure an egalitarian society, the founding fathers were not satisfied with only political justice. They sought to combine political justice with economic and social justice.

The Directive Principles may be classified into 3 broad categories—

1. Socialistic

2. Gandhian and

3. Liberal-intellectual.

(1) Socialistic Directives

Principal among this category of directives are (a) securing welfare of the people (Art. 38) (b) securing proper distribution of material resources of the community as to best sub serve the common-good, equal pay for equal work, protection of childhood and youth against exploitation. etc. (Art.39), (c) curing right to work, education etc. Art. (41), (d) securing just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief (Art. 42) etc.

(2) Gandhian Directives

Such directives are spread over several Arts. Principal among such directives are (a) to organize village panchayats (Art. 40), (b) to secure living wage, decent standard of life, and to promote cottage industries (Art.43), (c) to provide free and compulsory education to all children up to 14 years of age (Art. 45), (d) to promote economic and educational interests of the weaker sections of the people, particularly, the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, (e) to enforce prohibition of intoxicating drinks and cow-slaughter and to organize agriculture and animal husbandry on scientific lines (Arts. 46-48).

(3) Liberal intellectual directives

Principal among such directives are (a) to secure uniform civil code throughout the country (Art.44), (b) to separate the judiciary from the executive (Art.50), (c) to protect monuments of historic and national importance and (d) to promote international peace and security.

On the whole, Part IV contains a formidable list of directives given to the executive and the legislatures to follow in issuing orders or making laws. These directives make India a “plastic state.” The directives may be used by any party with any ideology. In fact, the Directive Principles are codified versions of democratic socialist order as conceived by Nehru with an admixture of Gandhian thought.

Part IV of the constitution does not form an operative part of the constitution. The directives are non-justiciable in character. The courts cannot compel the governments to enforce the directives.

But if there is no judicial sanction behind the directives, there are certainly political sanctions. Art. 37 make the directives, “fundamental in the governance of the country and in… making laws.” Hence the government cannot totally ignore them, for fear of adverse popular reaction. The opposition inevitably takes the government to task whenever the directives are blatantly ignored, thus scoring a political point.

The non-justiciability of part IV has exposed the directives to trenchant criticism. Jennings calls them “pious aspirations,” and “Fabian socialism without socialism.” Where characterizes them as “paragraphs of generalities.”

Yet many scholars appreciate the value of the directives. Sir B. N. Rau regards them as “moral precepts” with an educative value. Ambedkar considered them as powerful instruments for the transformation of India from a political democracy into an economic democracy. The directive principles according to Granville Austin, are “positive obligations”… to find a piddle way between individual liberty and Public good. “The directives constitute a sort of “instrument of instruction” to all governments in the great task of transforming a laissez-fire society into a welfare state, a socialistic pattern of society and eventually into a socialist society.

Parts III and IV, that is, chapters on Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles, together constitute the “conscience” of the Indian constitution. But, the differences between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State policy are significant. The differences are discussed below :

• Firstly, the fundamental rights constitute a set of negative injunctions. The state is restrained from doing something’s. The directives on the other hand are a set of positive directions. The state is urged to do something to transform India into a social and economic democracy. As Gladhill observes, Fundamental Rights are injunctions to prohibit the government from doing certain things, the Directive principles are affirmative instructions to the government to do certain things.

• Secondly, the Directives are non-justiciable. Courts do not enforce them. A directive may be made enforceable by the courts only when there is a lam on it. Fundamental rights, on the other hand are justiciable. They impose legal obligations on the state as well as on individuals. Courts enforce them. If a law violates a fundamental right, the law in question will be declared void. But no law will be declared unconstitutional on the ground that it violates a directive principle against violation of a fundamental right, constitutional remedy under Art. 32 are available which not the case is when a directive is violated either by the state or, by individual. For this reason Prof K. T. Shah deprecates the Directive Principles as “Pious wishes” or a mere window dressing for the social revolution of the country.

Whenever conflicts arise between fundamental rights and directive principles, fundamental rights prevail over the directive principles because, in terms of Arts. 32 and 226, fundamental rights are enforceable by the courts. If a law is in conflict with a fundamental right, it is declared void by the Supreme Court. But no law can be declared void on the ground that it is violative of a directive principle. In 1951, in Champakam Dorairajan vs. the state of Madras, the Supreme Court held “The chapter on Fundamental Rights is sacrosanct and not liable to be abridged by any legislative or executive act. The Directive Principles of State Policy have to conform and are subsidiary to the chapter on Fundamental Rights.”

25th constitution amendment Act in 1971 by Article 31(c) provided that laws enacted to implement directives in Article 39 (b) and (c) shall not be declared void on ground of contravention of fundamental rights guaranteed by Articles 14 and 19. In 1976, during emergency, the 42nd amendment, sought to widen the scope of Article 31 (c), to place all laws passed for the implementation of any or all directive principles beyond judicial review. But the Supreme Court struck down this attempt at total exclusion of all laws to implement directives from judicial review on the ground that this will offend the ‘basic structure’ of the constitution. Thus Article, 31(c) is restored to pre-1976 position. The position today is that, in general, the fundamental rights enjoy priority over the directives. But the laws passed to implement Article 39 (b) and (c) cannot be declared void on ground of violation of fundamental rights guaranteed by Articles 14 and 19.

Importance of Constitutional Remedies

Mere codification of fundamental rights in the constitution is not enough unless remedies for the enforcement of those rights conferred by the constitution are also guaranteed by the constitution itself. In other words, rights to constitutional remedies are also important.

Article 32: This article provides for important remedies for enforcement of fundamental rights. This article confers the right to move either to the Supreme Court or under Article 226 to the High Court for any infringement of any of the fundamental rights.

As remedial measure the Supreme Court shall have the power under Article 32 to issue directions or Writs in the nature of Habeas Corpus, Mandamas, Prohibition, Quo-warranto and Certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights stipulated in the chapter on fundamental rights.

Supreme Court has been empowered to issue the Writ known as Habeas Corpus, demanding the presence of the imprisoned person before the court to obtain knowledge of the reason why he has been imprisoned and to set him free if there is no lawful justification for his imprisonment.

This Supreme Court and the High courts can also issue the Writ of Mandamas, giving directives to an individual, or an institution, or a subordinate court or the government requiring fulfillment of its responsibilities.

The Writ of Prohibition is issued by the Supreme Court or High Court to a subordinate court forbidding to continue proceedings in excess of its jurisdiction or to usurp a jurisdiction with which it is not legally vested with.

The object of the writ of Certiorari is also to secure that the jurisdiction of subordinate court is exercised properly and it does not usurp its jurisdiction. While Prohibition is available at an earlier stage, Certiorari is available on similar grounds at a later stage.

By the Writ of Quo-warranto the Court enquires into the legality of the claim asserted to a public office and to take action if the claim is not found justified.

Varieties of rights come up for enforcement by the issue of Writs under Article 32:

1. Fundamental rights guaranteed by the constitution;

2. Constitutional rights not having the status of fundamental rights;

3. Statutory rights;

4. Rights which flow from subordinate legislations;

5. Rights based on case law;

6. Customary rights;

7. Contractual rights.

It may be pointed out here that no redress in possible for the violation of social and economic rights contained in the directive Principles, for, those rights are non-justiciable.

Question 1 : As remedial measure the Supreme Court shall have the power under Article 32 to issue which of the following directions or Writs ?

Select one:

a. Habeas Corpus

b. Mandamas

c. Quo-warranto and Certiorari

d. All of the options

Question 2

Directive Principles of state Policy are contained in ——?

Select one:

a. Part IV, Articles 36-51 of the Indian constitution

b. Part II, Articles 6-15 of the Indian constitution

c. Part III, Articles 36-51 of the Indian constitution

d. Part V, Articles 20-40 of the Indian constitution

Question 3

Fundamental Rights & Directive Principles of State Policy are contained in which of the following Chapters of Indian Constitution?

Select one:

a. III & IV

b. IV & V

c. IV & VIII

d. X & III

Question 4

Fundamental Rights are injunctions to prohibit the government from doing certain things, the Directive principles are affirmative instructions to the government to do certain things.This Statement is ______?

Select one:

a. False

b. True

c. Partially True

d. Partially wrong

Question 5

which of the following are correct in the context of Quo-Warranto?

Select one:

a. The Court enquires into the legality of the claim asserted to a public office and to take action if the claim is not found justified.

b. To secure that the jurisdiction of subordinate court is exercised properly and it does not usurp its jurisdiction.

c. Both A & B

d. None of the options

Question 6

Which of the following are true in the context of The Writ of Prohibition ?

Select one:

a. the Court enquires into the legality of the claim asserted to a public office and to take action if the claim is not found justified.

b. Court demanding the presence of the imprisoned person before the court to obtain knowledge of the reason why he has been imprisoned and to set him free if there is no lawful justification for his imprisonment.

c. issued by the Supreme Court or High Court to a subordinate court forbidding to continue proceedings in excess of its jurisdiction or to usurp a jurisdiction with which it is not legally vested with.

d. Both A & B

Question 7

Which of the following are Varieties of rights come up for enforcement by the issue of Writs under Article 32 ?

Select one:

a. “Rights which flow from subordinate legislations “

b. Rights based on case law

c. Customary rights

d. All of the options

Question 8

Which of the following options CANNOT be categorised as Directive Principles ?

Select one:

a. Socialistic

b. Politicalistic

c. Gandhian

d. Liberal Intellectual

Question 9

Which of the following statements are true in the context of fundamental rights ?

Select one:

a. fundamental rights are Not enforceable by the courts.

b. fundamental rights are Partially enforceable by the courts.

c. fundamental rights are enforceable by the courts.

d. None of the options

Question 10

__________ in 1971 by Article 31(c) provided that laws enacted to implement directives in Article 39 (b) and (c) shall not be declared void on ground of contravention of fundamental rights guaranteed by Articles 14 and 19.

Select one:

a. 25th constitution amendment Act

b. 28th constitution amendment Act

c. 35th constitution amendment Act

d. 75th constitution amendment Act

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MODULE III: LABOUR MANAGEMENT CO-OPERATION

Case Study

Employers can take action, including dismissals, against employees who have been errant or recalcitrant. However, any action taken must follow the proper disciplinary procedure.

Progressive disciplinary action is a process whereby an employer takes disciplinary action against an employee in a progressive manner; that is, going from lesser to heavier intensity action.

A lesser form of disciplinary action may include counselling the employee and issuing warning letters. Heavier intensity action include the issuance of a showcause letter, suspending the employee, conducting domestic inquiry and finally dismissal.

There are various clauses in the Employment Act 1955 that pertains to taking disciplinary action in a progressive manner.

If an employer acts with due care in taking disciplinary action, the courts will not intervene. Following the process step by step will reflect fairness on the part of the employer and can minimise industrial court cases for unlawful dismissal.

From time to time, cases of misconduct and dismissal involving employees may arise, and it is crucial that employers know what steps to take under the regulation to avoid being challenged for wrongful dismissal or dismissal without just cause.

All misconducts and acts of indiscipline must be investigated to identify whether they are minor or major in nature. The handling of misconduct and some of the related clauses is regulated under Section 12, 13, 14 and 15 of the Employment Act 1955 and also in Section 20 of the Industrial Relations Act 1967.

A grievance is basically a complaint. In a workplace a grievance generally occurs as a result of treatment which is perceived to be unfair or harsh at the hands of a work colleague. Typical situations which might result in a grievance include:

• Being passed over for promotion

• Being given unpopular tasks more often than other workers (picked on)

• Sexual harassment

• Favouritism in the sharing of overtime work hours

Employers need to implement measures to allow any such problems to be resolved effectively and fairly. One such measure is to implement ‘grievance procedures’, the purpose of which is to make it easier for employees to come forward if they feel they are a victim of unfair treatment.

If employees have difficulty dealing with significant workplace issues then the likely result is a reduction in workplace morale, increased staff turnover or even the risk of the employee taking legal action.

Grievance procedures will commonly contain:

1 A recommendation that the first action the aggrieved party take is to attempt to resolve the problem by talking directly with the person causing perceived to be perpetrating unfair or harsh treatment.

2 If any such attempt to find a resolution is unsuccessful, the method by which to bring the matter to the attention of appropriate authorities.

3 The amount of time which the complainant has to commence the grievance.

4 The process by which the grievance will be investigated, including the length of time within which matter must be actioned.

5 The confidentiality that must be observed

6 Guidance on mediation strategies

7 The process for appointing persons to arbitrate on the matter

Any act of misconduct can be further defined as below:

Minor misconduct

Minor misconduct can be described as any act of indiscipline or behaviour by an employee that causes minimal harm or damage, and is less detrimental to the reputation of the personnel and assets of the employer.

Some examples of minor misconducts are occasional tardiness, absence without leave, leaving the workplace before time, careless use of company tools and equipment, not storing tools in proper order, not wearing uniform, not using basic safety equipment, using company property for personal purposes and all other similar acts.

All complaints must be put in writing on a formal complaint form provided by a supervisor or the head of department. If the complaint is found not to be an offence after investigations, the supervisor or head of department should respond to the complainant that there is no case of misconduct.

However, if an offence is found, the employee should be counseled immediately and the counseling is to be recorded.

A warning letter should be issued if the same misconduct is repeated. The letter must state the misconduct, and warn that serious disciplinary action can and may be taken against the employee in question if the misconduct is not corrected. Should the employee again commit the same misconduct, a second warning letter should be issued.

It is permissible that the first warning letter be issued by the respective head of department so that the employee is aware that the person he to whom directly reports, such as supervisor or manager, can take disciplinary action against his subordinate.

Regardless, the human resource department should issue the second warning letter and handle any other action if the situation becomes serious and needs further attention, as it would be more familiar in handling the progressive disciplinary processes. If the misconduct persists, it may be considered a major misconduct.

Major misconduct

A major misconduct is any act of indiscipline or behaviour that causes substantial harm or damage, is detrimental to or affects the reputation of the personnel and assets of the employer. Similar to minor misconduct, all major misconduct must be investigated.

Some examples of major misconducts are: insubordination, disobedience, theft, fraud, dishonesty, gambling, assault, violence, abuse, habitual absences, habitual late attendance, bribery, negligence of duties, failure to observe safety rules, chronic inefficiency in performance, drug and alcohol abuse, engaging in private work during working hour, destroying company documents and all other similar act of misconduct.

Depending on the merits of the case, several measures can be taken – including suspension with half-pay and the issuance of a show-cause letter. A final warning letter can and may be issued if the response given by the employee is not acceptable.

If the employee does not satisfy to the conditions set down, the employer may proceed to hold a domestic inquiry and to take a more serious disciplinary action against the accused employee, including dismissal.

Alternatively, depending on the weight of the misconduct, the employer can and may consider not suspending the employee, issuing instead a final warning letter.

If suspension with half-pay is required, the next immediate step is the issuance of a showcause letter. In a typical situation, the employee should be given a reasonable period of time to respond (example, five working days to reply to a showcause letter), but may be extended if the magnitude of the event warrants a longer process, such as if witness accounts need to be compiled.

A final warning letter may be issued if the reply is not acceptable. In situations where said misconduct persists, the employer may proceed with a domestic inquiry.

Domestic inquiry

In a domestic inquiry process, a panel is set up to determine whether the accused is “guilty” or “innocent” of the charge. The panel consists of a chairman and two panel members, and their role is to listen to the proceedings of the domestic inquiry and come to a decision. After that management will make a decision on punishment.

There will be one person from the office that can act as the secretary to prepare a verbatim report (word by word) during the domestic inquiry process, while another person from human resource can be the presenting officer. At this stage, the case against the employee should be supported with proof of evidence, and it should be guided by the principles of natural justice and of good conscience in its deliberations.

If the accused is found guilty, the domestic inquiry panel may recommend the punishment to management.

On the other hand, the employee can and may provide an avenue for an appeal to the management committee to reconsider for other lesser punishment, if any.

If the employee is found not guilty, the domestic inquiry panel will inform the managing director of its decision.

Then, management will inform the accused employee of the decision, which is guided by the domestic inquiry panel, and pay back any amount due to the accused employee during his period of suspension with half-pay.

Question 1: “All complaints must be put in writing on a formal complaint form provided by a supervisor or the head of department. If the complaint is found not to be an offence after investigations, the supervisor or head of department should respond to the complainant that there is no case of misconduct”. This statement is ____?

Select one:

a. True

b. False

c. Partially True

d. Partially false

Question 2

As per this case Study – “A warning letter should be issued if the same misconduct is repeated. The letter must state the misconduct, and warn that serious disciplinary action can and may be taken against the employee in question if the misconduct is not corrected. Should the employee again commit the same misconduct, a second warning letter should be issued”. This Statement is ____?

Select one:

a. False

b. True

c. Partially True

d. Partially Wrong

Question 3

Depending upon the case, which of the disciplinary actions can be taken?

Select one:

a. issuance of a show-cause letter

b. suspension with half-pay

c. Both a & B

d. None of these

Question 4

Example of major misconducts  can be?

Select one:

a. dishonesty, gambling, assault

b. violence, abuse, habitual absences

c. disobedience, theft

d. All of the options

Question 5

Examples of minor misconducts can be?

Select one:

a. absence without leave

b. careless use of company tools

c. not wearing uniform

d. All of the options

Question 6

If employees have difficulty dealing with significant workplace issues then the likely result is ?

Select one:

a. reduction in workplace morale

b. increased staff turnover

c. Risk of the employee taking legal action

d. All of the options

Question 7

Minor misconduct can be described as any act of indiscipline or behaviour by an employee that causes _______to the reputation of the personnel and assets of the employer.

Select one:

a. maximum harm or damage, and is more detrimental

b. minimal harm or damage, and is less detrimental

c. average harm or damage, and is more detrimental

d. None of these

Question 8

Progressive disciplinary action is a process whereby an employer takes disciplinary action against an employee in a progressive manner, that means __?

Select one:

a. Going from lesser to heavier intensity action.

b. Going from heavier to lesser intensity action.

c. Both a & B

d. None of these

Question 9

Situations which might result in a grievance is/are?

Select one:

a. Being passed over for promotion

b. Favouritism in the sharing of overtime work hours

c. Being given unpopular tasks more often than other workers

d. All of the options

Question 10

The handling of misconduct and some of the related clauses is regulated under Section 12, 13, 14 and 15 of ____?

Select one:

a. Factories Act 1948

b. Contract Act 1970

c. the Employment Act 1955

d. Minimum Wages Act

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MODULE IV : MANAGING EMPLOYEE DISCIPLINE

Case Study

In yet another initiative towards improving the ease of doing business in the country, Bandaru Dattatreya-led labour ministry has notified draft rule that would allow principal employer or contractor hiring contract labour to file a unified annual return under the Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970.

Under the rules, to be called as the Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Central (Amendment) Rules, 2017, every contractor or principal employer shall upload a unified annual return in the Form XXIV specified in these rules on or before the February 1 following the close of the year to which it relates. The draft rules expires on April 14, 2017 after which the said rules will apply from the date of notification in the absence of any objections raised.

Besides, the employer or the principal contractor qalso have the option of filing the return manually or online. The principal employer or contractor shall also file a Unified Annual Return to the concerned authorities manually. In case, if, an employer maintains registers or records or reports in electronic form, such registers or records or reports shall also be taken into consideration,” the draft notification of the labour ministry said.

Both the government and the corporate sector employ a large number of contract workers. Contract labour accounts for 55% of public sector jobs and 45% of those in the private sector. Only about 300,000 contract labourers out of an estimated 80 million are employed in the organised sector.

The Object of the Contract Labour Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970 is to prevent exploitation of contract labour and also to introduce better conditions of work. A workman is deemed to be employed as Contract Labour when he is hired in connection with the work of an establishment by or through a Contractor. Contract workmen are indirect employees. Contract Labour differs from Direct Labour in terms of employment relationship with the establishment and method of wage payment. Contract Labour, by and large is not borne on pay roll nor is paid directly. The Contract Workmen are hired, supervised and remunerated by the Contractor, who in turn, is remunerated by the Establishment hiring the services of the Contractor.

Registration And Licensing

The Act applies to the Principal Employer of an Establishment and the Contractor where in 20 or more workmen are employed or were employed even for one day during preceding 12 months as Contract Labour. For the purpose of calculating the number, contract labour employed for different purposes through different contractor has to be taken into consideration. This Act does not apply to the Establishments where work performed is of intermittent or seasonal nature. If a Principal Employer or the Contractor falls within the vicinity of this Act then, such Principal Employer and the Contractor have to apply for Registration of the Establishment and License respectively. The contractor The Act also provides for Temporary Registration in case the Contract Labour is hired for a period not more than 15 days. Any change occurring in the particulars specified in the Registration or Licensing Certificate needs to be informed to the concerned Registering Officer within 30 days of such change. From combined reading of Section 7 and Rules 17 & 18 of the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Central Rules, 1971, it appears that the Principal Employer has to apply for registration in respect of each establishment. Other important point to note is that a License issued for One Contract cannot be used for entirely different Contract work even though there is no change in the Establishment.

Significant judgments of the Supreme Court in the matter are:

Steel Authority of India Ltd. vs. National Union of Waterfront Workers & Ors. The Sail judgment stated that the contract workers would have no right to automatic absorption upon abolition. They would only have a right to a preference in employment if permanent workers were to be employed to fill in the vacancies created by the removal of the contract workers

upon abolition. The Bench further added that on issuance of notification by the appropriate Government under S 1 0(1) prohibiting employment of contract labour in a given establishment, it is for the contractor to provide work to his labour in other establishments, where the contract labour system is not prohibited. This decision reversed the Supreme Courts decision in Air Indias Case (contract labour of the erstwhile contractor stand absorbed on the rolls of the Principal employer on abolition of contract labour system by appropriate Government under section 10 of the Act).

2. Maharashtra General Kamgar Union vs. Cipla Ltd. Gist of this judgment is that, if contract workers filed a complaint of

any unfair labour practices against any principal employer alleging that he was, in fact, their employer and that the contractor was a mere name-lender interposed in the relationship merely to shield the principal employer, this complaint would become non-maintainable.

Question 1 : A workman is deemed to be employed as Contract Labour when____?

Select one:

a. he is hired in connection with the work of an establishment by or through a Contractor.

b. he is hired in connection with the work of an establishment as a regular employee

c. Both a & b

d. None of the options

Question 2

Any change occurring in the particulars specified in the Registration or Licensing Certificate needs to be informed to the concerned Registering Officer within_______?

Select one:

a. 45 days of such change.

b. 60 days of such change.

c. 7 days of such change.

d. 30 days of such change.

Question 3

As per Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Central (Amendment) Rules, 2017, every contractor or principal employer shall upload a unified annual return in the  specified in these rules on or before the February 1 following the close of the year to which it relates.

Select one:

a. Form XXIV

b. Form XXV

c. Form XX

d. Form XXII

Question 4

As per this case study , “Contract labour accounts for 55% of public sector jobs and 45% of those in the private sector. Only about 300,000 contract labourers out of an estimated 80 million are employed in the organised sector” . This starement is ___?

Select one:

a. FALSE

b. TRUE

c. Partially Wrong

d. None of the options

Question 5

As Per this Case study , The Contract Workmen are hired, supervised and remunerated by the Contractor, who in turn, is remunerated by

Select one:

a. The Government agencies Only

b. By Himself

c. The Establishment hiring the services of the Contractor.

d. Both A & B

Question 6

as per this case study , The Judgement of supreme Court – “if contract workers filed a complaint of

any unfair labour practices against any principal employer alleging that he was, in fact, their employer and that the contractor was a mere name-lender interposed in the relationship merely to shield the principal employer, this complaint would become non-maintainable”. This refers to which of the following ?

Select one:

a. Maharashtra General Kamgar Union vs. Pfizer Ltd

b. Steel Authority of India Ltd. vs. National Union of Waterfront Workers & Ors

c. Maharashtra General Kamgar Union vs. Cipla Ltd

d. Steel Authority of India Ltd. vs. Maharashtra General Kamgar Union

Question 7

Contract Labour Act  applies to the Principal Employer of an Establishment and the Contractor where in ______are employed or were employed even for one day during preceding 12 months as Contract Labour.

Select one:

a. 10 or more workmen

b. 12 or more workmen

c. 20 or more workmen

d. 20 or Less workmen

Question 8

Contract workmen are ___?

Select one:

a. Direct employees

b. Indirect employees

c. Partially Permanent Employees

d. Either a or B

Question 9

The Object of the Contract Labour Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970 is to

Select one:

a. prevent exploitation of contract labour

b. to introduce better conditions of work

c. Both a & B

d. None of the options

Question 10

Which of the following options is/are reasons that a Contract Labour is different from Direct Labour ?                    (A) Different  in terms of employment relationship with the establishment . (B) Different in terms of method of wage payment. ( C ) Contract Labour is not on the payroll of the company. (D) Contract Labour is a Direct Employee

Select one:

a. Only A & B

b. Only A & C

c. Only B

d. Only A, B & C

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Module V : Labour Laws

Case Study

The city is an old industrial centre in North Central India which flourished in cotton textiles, leather and leather products, woollen textiles, engineering products, etc. In the recent times though, the city has been in the news only for its rapid industrial decline, fast deteriorating socio-economic order and very high unemployment and crime rate. It had a militant working class movement, but as the capital has moved out of the city and the mills have closed down, the trade unions are in shambles and the working class movement has virtually collapsed.

The present case is situated in a premiere technological institute of the country: the Institute was set up in one of the most important industrial centres of the country in the late 1950s with US collaboration as part of the Nehruvian post-colonial nation building project. The Institute functions on the principles of parliamentary democracy and accords fair amount of autonomy to the faculty. In the early years, probably because of being part of the first generation in the phase of post-colonial nation building, some of the members of the faculty brought in notions of social concerns to this fully residential campus (mainly for teaching staff and students and partly for non-teaching staff as well). Some of them were able to find academic as well as practical expressions for their social concerns within the campus, given the liberal environment and a degree of academic freedom. The liberal culture of the campus was further enhanced by a vibrant employees’ union which came up in the early 1970s.

Employees at the lower levels were mostly from nearby places, while faculty and students had fair representation from different parts of the country. Efforts at unionisation of the temporary workforce in the Institute began in the late 1960s with participation of the academic community. The general socio-political environment of the region, country, and probably the whole world in the 1960s and 1970s, affected and furthered the movement in the Institute too. This resulted in a strong trade union, and eventually, a permanent work force within a few years. But by the 1990s, with the onset of the economic reforms, the industrial relations in the Institute too, as across the whole country, entered a new phase. In the last decade and a half many of the labour and union rights have receded, as permanent work and workers are being rapidly replaced by contingent workforce.

In the past decade, sub-contracting of work by the Institute has multiplied manifold, and therefore, the contingent workforce has also commensurately increased. Many kinds of jobs have been completely taken over by the contingent workers – construction and civil maintenance, security, sanitation, horticulture, and even research assistance and office help; though the last category is not dealt with in the present work. There has also been a phenomenal rise in the infrastructural facilities within the Institute, primarily because of monetary contributions from the alumni (mostly from those who have been ‘successful’ abroad) which have been pouring in, in the wake of liberalisation. Though we do not have the formal figures, yet by an informed estimate, at present the strength of the permanent work force is probably matched by the contract and temporary workers and would be around a couple of thousand each. The discussion here is limited to the so-called ‘unskilled’/ ‘semi-skilled’ manual work, where minimum wage is an issue.

Demand for Minimum Wages (MWs)

The MWs emerged as an issue in the campus in the early 1990s. An informal group called the Vivekanand Samiti (VS) began a literacy drive amongst the migrant Chattisgarhi workers employed on some of the construction sites in the campus. Initially the effort concentrated in getting the children of the workers to attend a temporary school . Through interactions with these children the volunteers of VS gradually came to know about the miserable wages being paid to the workers in the campus (which was even less than half of the stipulated minimum wages). They decided to take up the issue with the Institute authorities. Legally the primary responsibility for ensuring the payment of minimum wages lies with the ‘principal employer’, the Institute in this case. In actual practice the contract workers have little job security and no employment rights. No formal rolls are maintained by the contractors, and since these workers have no organisation to mediate with the employers, they literally work at the mercy of the employers’ will and live with the constant fear of losing their employment. Hence all these organising efforts by the VS had to be done surreptitiously. Though, in the process a few workers did loose their jobs and were blacklisted by the whole set of contractors working for the Institute. Some of these workers formed the core of the later efforts at organising, which led to the formation of a workers’ cooperative in the campus.

The simplicity of the issue, the absolutely unambiguous position of the law of the land on the minimum wages, and the overall irony of the context of an elite institution with no apparent dearth of funds and resources not paying the MWs to the lowest rung of workers, caught the imagination of many amongst the academic community, at least for a while in the beginning. Several faculty members and students supported the cause and the Institute found itself in an indefensible position as to the reasons for non-payment of minimum wages, but for some practical difficulties in implementing the same given the market forces, etc. Though the administration could not wish away the issue of MWs it could not implement it either as the body of contractors unitedly opposed it by adopting several deterring tactics like firing the protesting workers, threatening to stop work, etc. Under these circumstances the Institute formed a committee of a few concerned faculty members to deal with the issue. But given the political economy of MWs, the committee could not make much headway and failed to ensure the payment of minimum wages as a norm within the campus .

The core group of agitating workers and the initiated middle class supporters came up with an ingenuous solution to the problem. They decided to form a workers’ cooperative that would bid on behalf of the workers and take up contracts so that the workers would have the freedom to pay themselves the MWs without the interference of the contractors. Thus a workers cooperative, Samiti, was formed in 1992, though in its early phase it faced significant resistance from the administration. The Institute administration even refused to give tender forms to Samiti, and when the fledgeling cooperative did manage to bid, they would reject it on some ground or another. But Samiti survived and over the years, has grown to a size of around 200 members at present, and is widely acknowledged as the only contracting organisation on the campus which pays the MWs. Samiti, including its members and sympathisers, have been taking up several cases of gross violation of MWs and bringing them to the attention of the larger community and the authorities. But for all practical purposes except for Samiti market forces largely decided the norm . for the wages in the campus, irrespective of the stipulated MWs. But this is not the place to relate Samiti’s tale. We have attempted to capture some of the organisational features of Samiti in another work (Varman & Chakrabarti, 2004). We will touch upon Samiti in the final section to make certain observations regarding the labour markets.

As has been mentioned earlier, besides the global phenomena of recession of worker rights the situation in the campus was aggravated over the 1990s, probably because of a spurt in construction activity aided by huge sums of alumni money, where large numbers of workers (many of them migrants from distant places) were employed at wages which were only 50-60% of the statutory minimum wages. Concerned members of the Institute community have been regularly voicing their concerns at several formal and informal forums on the issue; some of the instances are as follows.

§ At least two reports on non-payment of minimum wages in the campus were prepared by students as part of their course work – one comparing the state of construction workers vis-à-vis the Minimum Wages Act, which made a grim reading on the conditions of the workers in the campus. The second report compared the state of other contract workers on cleaning work with those of Samiti and brought out how the latter was an exception in paying MWs. The faculty forum convener forwarded both the reports along with a letter signed by a set of faculty members expressing their concern ‘about the blatant flouting of minimum wage laws for contract jobs’, to the higher authorities seeking their response.

§ Several individual workers risked their jobs to register grievances about non-payment of minimum-wages. Many of these grievances were channelled either through the concerned members of the academic community, Samiti or Valmiki Samaj, a local chapter of an all India organisation of the Valmiki caste, who are involved in most of the cleaning work in the campus.

Probably because of all these sustained efforts, in November 2000 the administration decided to constitute another committee for monitoring minimum wages in the campus – Monitoring Committee – Wages (MCW). The appointment letter of the Committee was all of one line which indicated that probably no serious thought had been given to the functioning and role of the committee and it could at best be considered an official acknowledgement of all the criticism levelled on the issue of MWs. All that the office-order said was:

The committee shall oversee the disbursement of wages to Daily Wage Workers engaged in various units of the Institute and deal with the related disputes.

The following is the account of the journey of MCW from its inception in December 2000 to December 2005. An important aspect of the Committee and its functioning which should be mentioned at the outset, has been the sustained support it received from a large informal group consisting of members of the faculty, students, staff and other members/ residents of the campus community. The MCW had to tread uncertain and often extremely contestable territories, with almost no previous experience or precedence to go by. Under these circumstances the informal group acted as a sounding board both for new ideas as well as for delicate decisions. On situations of impasse with the authorities as well as with the contractors and the administration, the informal group has also formally supported the MCW, including by being part of official delegation on behalf of the Committee. Though it is difficult to adequately capture the significance of this informal group within the scope of the present note, one can only assert that such a group has been continually an integral part of the Committee’s efforts in various ways. In the following section we will attempt to capture various phases of the Committee and volunteers’ work in brief.

Question 1 : As Per this Case Study , a workers cooperative, Samiti, was formed in _____?

Select one:

a. 1950

b. 1992

c. 1890

d. 1990

Question 2

As per this case study ,An informal group called _____ began a literacy drive amongst the migrant Chattisgarhi workers employed on some of the construction sites in the campus.

Select one:

a. ALL India Trade union Congress (AITUC)

b. The Vivekanand Samiti (VS)

c. Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS)Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS)

d. Both a & C

Question 3

As per this case study -” In actual practice the contract workers have little job security and no employment rights. No formal rolls are maintained by the contractors, and since these workers have no organisation to mediate with the employers, they literally work at the mercy of the employers’ will and live with the constant fear of losing their employment”.  This statement is ___?

Select one:

a. True

b. False

c. Partially True

d. Partially wrong

Question 4

Efforts at unionisation of the temporary workforce in the Institute began in the______ with participation of the academic community.

Select one:

a. late 1960s

b. 1950’s

c. 1920’s

d. 1900

Question 5

In the past decade, sub-contracting of work by the Institute has multiplied manifold, and therefore, the contingent workforce has also commensurately increased. Many kinds of jobs have been completely taken over by the contingent workers – what are these jobs ?

Select one:

a. construction and civil maintenance

b. security, sanitation, horticulture

c. research assistance and office help

d. All of the options

Question 6

Legally the primary responsibility for ensuring the payment of minimum wages lies with __ ?

Select one:

a. the ‘principal employer’

b. the contractor Only

c. the Government

d. Both B & C

Question 7

Probably because of all the sustained efforts, in November 2000 the administration decided to constitute another committee for monitoring minimum wages in the campus  known as ?

Select one:

a. Mentoring Community of- Wages (MCW).

b. Marketing Committee – Wages (MCW).

c. Mentoring Committee – Wages (MCW).

d. Monitoring Committee – Wages (MCW).

Question 8

Reports on non-payment of minimum wages in the campus were prepared by students. (A)Ccomparing the state of construction workers vis-à-vis the Minimum Wages Act. ( B) Comparing the state of other contract workers on cleaning work with those of Samiti and brought out how the latter was an exception in paying Minimum wages.

Select one:

a. Only A

b. Only B

c. None of these options

d. Both a & B

Question 9

The city is an old industrial centre in North Central India which flourished in cotton textiles, leather and leather products, woollen textiles, engineering products, etc. In the recent times though, the city has been in the news only for

Select one:

a. its rapid industrial decline

b. fast deteriorating socio-economic order

c. very high unemployment and crime rate.

d. All of the options

Question 10

Through interactions with these children the volunteers of VS gradually came to know about the____ ?

Select one:

a. miserable wages being paid to the workers in the campus

b. Wages were even less than half of the stipulated minimum wages

c. Both a& b

d. None of these

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ASSIGNMENT 2

Case Study

For right or wrong reasons, Bata India Limited (Bata) always made the headlines in the financial dailies and business magazines during the late 1990s. The company was headed by the 60 year old managing director William Keith Weston (Weston). He was popularly known as a “turnaround specialist” and had successfully turned around many sick companies within the Bata Shoe Organization (BSO) group.

By the end of financial year 1999, Bata managed to report rising profits for four consecutive years after incurring its first ever loss of Rs. 420 mn in 1995. However, by the third quarter ended September 30, 2000, Weston was a worried man. Bata was once again on the downward path. The company’s nine months net profits of Rs 105.5 mn in 2000 was substantially lower than the Rs. 209.8 mn recorded in 1999. Its staff costs of Rs. 1.29 bn (23% of net sales) was also higher as compared to Rs. 1.18 bn incurred in the previous year. In September 2000, Bata was heading towards a major labour dispute as Bata Mazdoor Union (BMU) had requested West Bengal government to intervene in what it considered to be a major downsizing exercise.

With net revenues of Rs. 7.26 bn and net profit of Rs. 300.46 mn for the financial year ending December 31, 1999, Bata was India’s largest manufacturer and marketer of footwear products. As on February 08, 2001, the company had a market valuation of Rs. 3.69 bn. For years, Bata’s reasonably priced, sturdy footwear had made it one of India’s best known brands. Bata sold over 60 million pairs per annum in India and also exported its products in overseas markets including the US, the UK, Europe and Middle East countries. The company was an important operation for its Toronto, Canada based parent, the BSO group run by Thomas Bata, which owned 51% equity stake.

The company provided employment to over 15,000 people in its manufacturing and sales operations throughout India. Headquartered in Calcutta, the company manufactured over 33 million pairs per year in its five plants located in Batanagar (West Bengal), Faridabad (Haryana), Bangalore (Karnataka), Patna (Bihar) and Hosur (Tamil Nadu). The company had a distribution network of over 1,500 retail stores and 27 wholesale depots. It outsourced over 23 million pairs of footwear per year from various small-scale manufacturers.

Throughout its history, Bata was plagued by labor problems with frequent strikes and lockouts at its manufacturing facilities. The company incurred huge employee expenses (22% of net sales in 1999). Competitors like Liberty Shoes were far more cost-effective with salaries of its 5,000 strong workforce comprising just 5% of its turnover.

When the company was in the red in 1995 for the first time, BSO restructured the entire board and sent in a team headed by Weston. Soon after he stepped in several changes were made in the management. Indians, who held key positions in top management, were replaced with expatriate Weston taking over as managing director. Mike Middleton was appointed as deputy managing director and R. Senonner headed the marketing division. They made several key changes, including a complete overhaul of the company’s operations and key departments. Within two months of Weston taking over, Bata decided to sell its headquarter building in Calcutta for Rs. 19.5 crores, in a bid to stem losses. The company shifted wholesale, planning & distribution, and the commercial department to Batanagar, despite opposition from the trade unions. Robin Majumdar, president, co-ordination committee, Bata Trade Union, criticised the move, saying: “Profits may return, but honor is difficult to regain.” The management team implemented a massive revamping exercise in which more than 250 managers and their juniors were asked to quit. Bata decided to stop further recruitment.

The management team implemented a massive revamping exercise in which more than 250 managers and their juniors were asked to quit. Bata decided to stop further recruitment. The management offered its staff performance based salary. In 1996, for the first time in Bata’s 62-year-old history, the company signed a long-term bipartite agreement. This agreement was signed without any disruption of work. Recalls Majumdar: “We showed the management that we could be as productive as any other union in the country.” In the six-year period 1993-99, Bata had considerably brought down the staff strength of its Batanagar factory and Calcutta offices to 6,700.

In fiscal 1996, Bata was back in the black with the company reporting net profits of Rs. 41.5 mn on revenues of Rs. 5.90 bn (Rs. 5.32 bn in 1995). In fiscal 1997, Bata further consolidated the gains with the company reporting net profits of Rs 166.9 mn on revenues of Rs. 6.70 bn. A senior HR manager at the company admitted that with an upswing in Bata’s fortunes, even its traditionally intransigent workers were motivated to do better. In 1997, Bata workers achieved 93% of their production targets. The management rewarded the workers with a 17% bonus, up from the 15% given in 1996.

By the end of 1997, Bata still faced problems of a high-cost structure and surplus labour. Infact, the turnaround had made the unions more aggressive and demanding. Weston had failed to strike a deal with the All India Bata Shop Managers Union (AIBSMU) since the third quarter of 1997. The shop managers were insisting that Bata honor the 1990 agreement, which stipulated that the management would fill up 248 vacancies in its retail outlets. It also opposed the move to sack all the cashiers in outlets with annual sales of less than Rs 5 mn, which meant elimination of 690 jobs.

In 1999, the Bata management in a bid to further cut costs announced the phasing out of several welfare measures at its Batanagar Unit. Among the proposals were near total withdrawal of management subsidies, canteen facilities, township maintenance, electricity and health care schemes for the employees’ families. Other measures were aimed at increasing productivity, reorganizing some departments and extending working days for some essential services. On January 14, 1999, the BMU submitted their charter of demands to the management. The demands mainly revolved around economic issues. In the list of non-economic issues was the demand for reinstatement of the four dismissed employees.1 The Union had also demanded the introduction of a scheme for workers participation in management. On the economic front, the Union had demanded a wage hike of around Rs. 90 per week, additional allowances as provident fund over the statutory limit by the management, increase in ‘plan bonus’ and introduction of attendance bonus for migrant workers.

In July 1999, BMU was finally able to strike a deal. It signed a three-year wage agreement that included a lumpsum payment of arrears of Rs. 4,000 per employee. The management agreed to include 10% of the 400 contract laborers at Batanagar in its staff.

Other gains included an average increase of Rs. 45.50 in the weekly pay of the 5,600 employees in Batanagar, an improved rate of DA and increase in tiffin allowance. However, canteen rates had been doubled from Rs. 0.75 for a meal to Rs. 1.50. For the 500 families staying at Batanagar, the electricity rates had been doubled to Rs. 0.48 per unit. BMU was successful in preventing the management from dismantling the public health unit in which 80 people were employed. In September 1999, the West Bengal State labour tribunal in an order justified and upheld Bata’s action of suspending and subsequent dismissing of three executive members of the BMU. The tribunal had provided no relief to the dismissed members who had been found guilty of assaulting the chief welfare officer at the Batanagar unit on November 26, 1996.

More than half of Bata’s production came from the Batanagar factory in West Bengal, a state notorious for its militant trade unions, who derived their strength from the dominant political parties, especially the left parties.

Notwithstanding the company’s grip on the shoe market in India, Bata’s equally large reputation for corruption within, created the perception that Weston would have a difficult time. When the new management team weeded out irregularities and turned the company around within a couple of years, tackling the politicized trade unions proved to be the hardest of all tasks

On July 21, 1998, Weston was severely assaulted by four workers at the company’s factory at Batanagar, while he was attending a business meeting. The incident occurred after a member of BMU, Arup Dutta, met Weston to discuss the issue of the suspended employees. Dutta reportedly got into a verbal duel with Weston, upon which the other workers began to shout slogans. When Weston tried to leave the room the workers turned violent and assaulted him. This was the second attack on an officer after Weston took charge of the company, the first one being the assault on the chief welfare officer in 1996. Soon after the incident, the management dismissed the three employees who were involved in the violence. The employees involved accepted their dismissal letters but subsequently provoked other workers to go in for a strike to protest the management’s move. Workers at Batanagar went on a strike for two days following the incident. Commenting on the strike, Majumdar said: “The issue at Bata was much wider than that of the dismissal of three employees on grounds of indiscipline. Stoppage of recruitment and continuous farming out of jobs had been causing widespread resentment among employees for a long time.”

Following the incident, BSO decided to reconsider its investment plans at Batanagar. Senior vice-president and member of the executive committee, MJZ Mowla, said2: “We had chalked out a significant investment programme at Batanagar this year which was more than what was invested last year. However, that will all be postponed.”

The incident had opened a can of worms, said the company insiders. The three men who were charge-sheeted, were members of the 41-member committee of BMU, which had strong political connections with the ruling Communist Party of India (Marxist). The trio it was alleged, had in the past a good rapport with the senior managers, who were no longer with the organization. These managers had reportedly farmed out a large chunk of the contract operations to this trio.

Company insiders said the recent violence was more a political issue rather than an industrial relations problem, since the workers had very little to do with it. Seeing the seriousness of the issue and the party’s involvement, the state government tried to solve the problem by setting up a tripartite meeting among company officials, the labor directorate and the union representatives. The workers feared a closedown as the inquiry proceeded.

For Bata, labor had always posed major problems. Strikes seemed to be a perennial problem. Much before the assault case, Bata’s chronically restive factory at Batanagar had always been plagued by labor strife. In 1992, the factory was closed for four and a half months. In 1995, Bata entered into a 3-year bipartite agreement with the workers, represented by the then 10,000 strong BMU, which also had the West Bengal government as a signatory. It was in 1998, that the company for the first time signed another long-term bipartite agreement with the unions without any disruption of work. Apprehensive about labor problems spilling over to other units, the company entered into similar long-term agreements with the unions at its manufacturing units at Bangalore and Faridabad.

In February 1999, a lockout was declared in Bata’s Faridabad Unit. Middleton commented that the closure of the unit would not have much impact on the company’s revenues as it was catering to lower-end products such as canvas and Hawaii chappals. The lock out lasted for eight months. In October 1999, the unit resumed production when Bata signed a three-year wage agreement

On March 8, 2000, a lockout was declared at Bata’s Peenya factory in Bangalore, following a strike by its employee union. The new leadership of the union had refused to abide by the wage agreement, which was to expire in August 2001. Following the failure of its negotiations with the union, the management decided to go for a lock out. Bata management was of the view that though it would have to bear the cost of maintaining an idle plant (Rs. 3 million), the effect of the closures on sales and production would be minimal as the footwear manufactured in the factory could be shifted to the company’s other factories and associate manufacturers. The factory had 300 workers on its rolls and manufactured canvas and PVC footwear.

In July 2000, Bata lifted the lockout at the Peenya factory. However, some of the workers opposed the company’s move to get an undertaking from the factory employees to resume work. The employees demanded revocation of suspension against 20 of their fellow employees. They also demanded that conditions such as maintaining normal production schedule, conforming to standing orders and the settlement in force should not be insisted upon.

In September 2000, Bata was again headed for a labour dispute when the BMU asked the West Bengal government to intervene in what it perceived to be a downsizing exercise being undertaken by the management. BMU justified this move by alleging that the management has increased outsourcing of products and also due to perceived declining importance of the Batanagar unit. The union said that Bata has started outsourcing the Power range of fully manufactured shoes from China, compared to the earlier outsourcing of only assembly and sewing line job. The company’s production of Hawai chappals at the Batanagar unit too had come down by 58% from the weekly capacity of 0.144 million pairs. These steps had resulted in lower income for the workers forcing them to approach the government for saving their interests.

Question 1 : according to this case study ,throughout its history, Bata was plagued by labor problems . What were these? (A) frequent strikes (B) lockouts at manufacturing facilities.

Select one:

a. Only A not B

b. Only B not A

c. Both A & B

d. None of these

Question 2

AIBSMU stands for _____ in this case study.

Select one:

a. All India Bata Shop Managers Union

b. All india Bata specialist Managers Union

c. All India Bata Shop Managerial Union Committee

d. All India Bata Shop Managers Trade Union

Question 3

As per this case study , managing director William Keith Weston (Weston), he was popularly known as ___?

Select one:

a. Turnaround expert

b. Turnaround specialist

c. Either a or b

d. None of these

Question 4

As per this case study ,Who among the following was deputed as as deputy managing director of Bata ?

Select one:

a. William Keith Weston

b. R. Senonner

c. Mike Middleton

d. None of these

Question 5

As per this case Study – ” the three men who were charge-sheeted, were members of the 41-member committee of BMU, which had strong political connections with the ruling Communist Party of India (Marxist)”. This Statement is ___?

Select one:

a. True

b. Partially true

c. False

d. Partially Wrong

Question 6

Bata had a major labour dispute with BMU related to which of the follwing issues ?

Select one:

a. Low wages

b. non payment of wages

c. major downsizing exercise

d. All of the options

Question 7

In 1992, the factory was closed for four and a half months. In 1995, Bata entered into a______, represented by the then 10,000 strong BMU, which also had the West Bengal government as a signatory.

Select one:

a. 5-year bipartite agreement with the workers

b. 3-year bipartite agreement with the workers

c. 3-year bipartite agreement with the management

d. 5-year bipartite agreement with the management

Question 8

In July 1999, BMU was finally able to strike a deal. It signed a three-year wage agreement that included___?

Select one:

a. Total Payments to all workers

b. a lumpsum payment of arrears of Rs. 4,000 per employee

c. a lumpsum payment of arrears of Rs. 1,000 per employee

d. All Pending payment of arrears + Rs. 10,000 per employee

Question 9

In September 2000, Bata had  a major labour dispute with ?

Select one:

a. Bata Mazdoor Union (BMU)

b. Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS)

c. All india Trade union Congress (AITUC)

d. None of these

Question 10

Which of the following was/were the demands of the union in Bata ?

Select one:

a. a scheme for workers participation in management

b. wage hike of around Rs. 90 per week

c. attendance bonus for migrant workers

d. All of the options

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Organizational Change & Development -Semester III

Organizational Change & Development -Semester III

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Module I : Organizational Development: An Introduction

Case study

British Gas is a British-owned energy supplier. British Gas is the UK s leading provider of energy and has over 16 million customer accounts. It employs over 20,000 people and was voted one of the 25 Best Big Companies to Work For by The Sunday Times in the UK in 2011. All organisations have employees working at different levels of responsibility. At the bottom, a business depends on its operatives to produce the products or services. Team leaders perform the day-to-day management role, with operational and senior managers setting direction and strategy for the business as a whole.

Theorist Henri Fayol identified the key areas of manager’s work. He proposed that the five key functions of management are:

Planning

• Organising

• Commanding

• Coordinating

• Controlling

Within British Gas, each individual operates as a member of a team, which is led by a team manager who has a range of supervisory duties. These include monitoring the performance of their team members. At British Gas the team managers are referred to as service managers. Service managers of electrical and technical service engineers need to organise routines in order to meet the needs of customers. They must also positively promote British Gas and its products. Their expert knowledge helps them to provide customers with sound advice that opens up opportunities to create new business. Occasionally, they have to deal with customer complaints. This is why customer service and good communication skills are of great importance to this role. As leaders of a team, all service managers within British Gas set personal and group targets for employees within their span of control. They also communicate their ideas and thoughts to members of the team, to other service managers and to operational managers. At all times they need to maintain good working relationships with team members. Being able to communicate effectively and keep focused on strong customer relations helps them to manage their workload effectively. Some of the benefits of being a service manager include a competitive salary, performance related bonuses and good pension provision.

In many cases an individual who started at British Gas as an apprentice, trainee or qualified engineer or electrician can advance to become a service manager. Career progression may eventually enable them to become an operational manager. The operational managers are responsible for making strategic decisions. To make such decisions operational managers require a range of key skills. These include skills and knowledge of customer service, teamwork, communication, IT and finance. As individuals progress from a service manager to operational managers within British Gas they need to up-skill. This helps them to adapt and develop as they undertake further senior responsibilities within the organisation. For example, they now have to take responsibility for customer satisfaction for a large part of the business. They do this by monitoring that work has been completed to the satisfaction of customers. Operational managers also have to monitor standards and set targets for improvements. They are responsible for managing budgets and have to ensure that their part of the business meet its budget objectives. At all times they must try to improve best practice. By doing this they can identify areas where costs can be reduced to improve profitability and efficiency. It is the vision of the operational managers that keeps the business moving forward, vital in such a highly competitive market.

Question 1 : According to theorist Henri Fayol, what are the key areas of manager’s work?

Select one:

a. Planning

b. Commanding

c. Controlling

d. All of the above

Question 2

How does a service manager take the responsibility to progress as an operational manager?

Select one:

a. The service managers have to take responsibility for customer satisfaction and for the progress they do it by monitoring that work has been completed to the satisfaction of customers

b. Performing the given task diligently

c. Encouraging the team to take extra responsibility

d. All of the above

Question 3

How is the hierarchical system within British Gas?

Select one:

a. Each individual operates as a member of a team, which is led by a team manager who has a range of supervisory duties

b. Each individual operates as a member of a team

c. All departments are led by the same team manager who has a range of supervisory duties

d. None of the above

Question 4

What are the benefits of a service manager at British Gas?

Select one:

a. Competitive salary

b. Performance related bonuses

c. Good pension provision

d. All of the above

Question 5

What are the responsibilities of an operations manager?

Select one:

a. Monitor standards and set targets for improvements

b. Managing budgets to ensure that their part of the business meet its budget objectives

c. Improve best practice

d. All of the above

Question 6

What are the skills that an operational manager should possess?

Select one:

a. Skills and knowledge of customer service

b. Communication Skills

c. Performance related bonuses

d. Both a and b

Question 7

What are the team managers referred as at British Gas?

Select one:

a. Line managers

b. Supervisors

c. Service managers

d. Team managers

Question 8

What is the role of operational manager?

Select one:

a. Making strategic decision

b. Monitoring the performance of their team members.

c. Deal with customer complaints

d. Provide customers with sound advice

Question 9

Which of the following are supervisory duties of team managers at British Gas?

Select one:

a. Managing the work of the team

b. Monitoring the performance of their team members.

c. Organising the work for each team member

d. All of the above

Question 10

Which of the following are the responsibilities of the service managers of electrical and technical department?

Select one:

a. Promote British Gas and its products

b. Provide customers with sound advice

c. Deal with customer complaints

d. All of the above

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Module II : Typology of Organizational Development Interventions

Case study

“A pharmaceutical machines manufacturing company got in touch with us when they were clogged by lot of internal challenges. They were unable to harness the market opportunities, or manage the work efficiently. They wanted to get into a Joint venture with a Multinational company in Germany, for which they had to set their company, ready in order to go through the audit and evaluation successfully.

After a detailed 360 degree diagnosis, we identified the gaps and stagnant areas. We drew an organizational developmental intervention and implemented it. This intervention ran over 12 months.

At the end of phase 1, the company saw the following improvements:

• Clear vision and mission for the management

• Long standing pending decisions on obsolete process and way of working made space for improved business processes.

• Inefficiencies were recorded objectively and handled through process refinement and employee training.

• Employee satisfaction was improved, through setting up and communicating the HR policies, defining Job roles and introducing performance management system.

• The overall top line of the company grew by more than 40% that year

• The company started attracting professional talent into the organization

Before Scenario the Challenges faced:

• Unable to harness growth/market opportunities. Stagnancy in Top Line

• To transform the organization from a conservative family owned business to a profession outfit.

• Production challenges

• Absence of HR setup or processes or policies

• Lack of clearly set processes made the working very person driven and time consuming.

• Resistance to Change at the staff level, Department Head level

• No Productivity Measures and the work at all departments was person driven rather than performance or process driven

An Organization Development Plan was drawn for first 12 months which is the First Phase, after a detailed diagnosis of the company.

• Priority Areas were identified and a Plan of Action was drawn.

• As a top –down approach we facilitated in recreating the Vision, Mission & values and set direction to where the organization wants to be in future.

• Organization restructuring for efficient manpower utilization

• Business Process Re-engineering to streamline the work flow

• Introducing best practices from other Industries, HR Strategy, HR Operational policies, Job descriptions, Manpower Planning, Recruitments

• Training and development, counseling and audit given to employees

In the second Phase, they introduced Performance Management System

• Departmental KPI’s were fine-tuned

• Job roles were revisited

• Performance Management Trainings were given to Managers and staff

• Supported to complete the implementation of the performance Management process

After the Interventions the company became a self-propelled organization. The organization finally became a system driven, target oriented. They were able to create the growth plan for the next 5 Years in place and plan for strategic joint ventures with world no 1 in respective fields in place.

Question 1 : By how % the overall top line of the company grew?

Select one:

a. 20%

b. 40%

c. 30%

d. 10%

Question 2

How long was the organizational developmental intervention carried on in the organisation?

Select one:

a. 5 Months

b. 3 Months

c. 2 Months

d. 12 Months

Question 3

How were the gaps and stagnant areas identified?

Select one:

a. Management discussion

b. Managerial role change

c. Detailed 360 degree diagnosis

d. None of the above

Question 4

In the first phase of intervention, which of the following improvements were seen within the organisation?

Select one:

a. Employee satisfaction was improved, through setting up and communicating

b. The overall top line of the company grew by more than 40% that year

c. Clear vision and mission for the management

d. All of the above

Question 5

What was introduced in the second phase of intervention?

Select one:

a. Performance Management

b. Introducing best practices from other Industries

c. Training and development

d. Business Process Re-engineering

Question 6

What was the challenge faced by the pharmaceutical company?

Select one:

a. Unable to harness the market opportunities

b. Manage the work efficiently

c. Internal challenges

d. All of the above

Question 7

What was the new strategy they looked forward for?

Select one:

a. Drop their line of business

b. Joint venture with a Multinational company in Germany

c. Re-engineering of the organisation

d. None of the above

Question 8

What were the objectives of the organisational plan in the first phase?

Select one:

a. Organization restructuring for efficient manpower utilization

b. Business Process Re-engineering to streamline the work flow

c. Departmental KPI’s were fine-tuned

d. Both a and b

Question 9

Which among the following challenges were faced by the organisation before the interventions?

Select one:

a. Stagnancy in Top Line

b. Production challenges

c. Absence of HR setup or processes or policies

d. All of the above

Question 10

Why was the company looking forward for interventions?

Select one:

a. They were clogged by lot of internal challenges

b. They were not able to manage their employees

c. Wanted to increase their expertise

d. None of the above

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Module III: Action Research & Organizational Design

Case Study

“Matt owns 10 mobile phone shops located across Northern Ireland. Although each outlet trades under the same name, Chatz, they are all very different. This is because Matt has always allowed the manager within each shop to have complete control over their respective outlet. Therefore, each of the stores has its own unique character in terms of store layout, presentation and location. They stock different brands of mobile phone and accessories and buy from different suppliers. Each of the stores is promoted locally.

Whilst this approach has served the business well in the past, Matt is planning to appoint a Purchasing Manager to take responsibility for stock purchases for all outlets.

Increasing levels of competition from national supermarkets and changes in consumer tastes have convinced Matt to centralise the decision-making process within Chatz. It is anticipated that many of the current responsibilities undertaken by store managers will be transferred to Head Office within the next 3 months. In considering the appointment of a Purchasing Manager, Matt is conscious of the need to widen the ‘span of control’ that this individual would have, to include supervisory duties related to successful management of stocks and the warehouse operations.”

Question 1 : How are the stores promoted?

Select one:

a. Regionally

b. Locally

c. Centrally

d. All of the above

Question 2

How has Matt planned to make the organisation a centralised organisation?

Select one:

a. By transferring the current responsibilities undertaken by store managers to the Head Office

b. By changing the role of store manager to purchase manager

c. By recruiting a supervisor for each store

d. All of the above

Question 3

The runing plan of Chartz has served __________ in the past.

Select one:

a. Inconveniently

b. Successfully

c. Incorrectly

d. All of the above

Question 4

What are the two ways Matt designed the organisation structure of Chatz?

Select one:

a. Each of the stores has its own unique character in terms of store layout, presentation and location

b. The stocks are of different brands of mobile phone and accessories and buy from different suppliers

c. The creation or change of an organization’s structure

d. Both a and b

Question 5

What is ‘span of control’?

Select one:

a. Individual will have to include supervisory duties related to successful management of stocks and the warehouse operations

b. Individual will have manage stocks and the warehouse operations

c. Individual will arrange stocks in the warehouses

d. None of the above

Question 6

What is meant by Organisational Design?

Select one:

a. Creation of roles & processes

b. The creation or change of an organization’s structure

c. Recruitment of new employees

d. Both a and b

Question 7

What is the new strategy planned by Matt for Chatz?

Select one:

a. Appointment of a purchasing manager

b. Change the promotional strategy

c. Change the names of the trade outlets

d. None of the above

Question 8

What is thought to be the responsibility of the purchasing manager?

Select one:

a. Managing the warehouse

b. Managing the stocks

c. Stock purchases for all outlets

d. All of the above

Question 9

What strategy has Matt thought of applying in the decision making process of Chatz?

Select one:

a. Centralised decision making

b. Decentralised decision making

c. Formal decision making

d. None of the above

Question 10

What will Matt have to do with the appointment of purchasing manager?

Select one:

a. Reduce the store managers

b. Widen the ‘span of control’

c. Manage the stocks in the warehouse through proper inventory system

d. None of the above

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MODULE IV : ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTIONS

Case study

“The problem:

Linda, the CEO of a global software development company, knew she needed to have a tough conversation with her senior management team about how they were working together – or, more precisely, how they were not working together. Communication on the team had broken down because different team members had varying perspectives on important issues, and were not finding productive ways to address them. Some were angry but silent, while others were fighting openly – and loudly. The team knew they needed to discuss how to communicate across departments, how to make decisions together as a team, and how to manage the hand-off from the Sales department to Engagement Management once a new client had been signed on, a process that had been historically unclear and was getting more and more fraught with confusion over time.

The underlying problem:

We conducted our initial round of diagnostic interviews with each member of the 6-person senior management team. We discovered that there was a long-running history of miscommunications and turnover on the leadership team that contributed to the current difficult team dynamics. In particular, two members of the team represented opposite views from one another on a series of topics facing the team. These two team members, the Chief Marketing Officer and the Chief Technology Officer, had very different perspectives on how certain decisions had come to be made, and how those should now change. Linda, the CEO, was unsure how to manage the quickly deteriorating relationship between the CMO and CTO, but she knew something needed to be done.

The solution:

After the initial interviews, we helped the CMO and the CTO explore the nature of their relationship, their different roles in the company, as well as their different management styles and personalities. We enabled them to listen to one another, and to share their own perspectives, reasoning and interests. While they still disagreed on some topics, they discovered that some of their initial disagreements had been the result of misinterpretations and stylistic communication differences. This helped them give one another the benefit of the doubt more readily than before, and to agree on two major decisions that had previously been deadlocked and were holding up the team. They recommended those decisions to the CEO.

As the relationship between the CMO and CTO improved, we facilitated a series of team-wide meetings. We put the thorny issues facing the team on the table for discussion, one by one. The team discussed its communication and decision-making processes and the hand-off from Sales to Engagement Management: how did these happen at the company today? What worked, and what didn’t? How did this team want these to work going forward?

Results:

Through the team-wide meetings, each of the officers made a series of commitments for actions to take in the next 3 quarters to follow up on the solutions the team had generated. The CEO committed to being more proactive when disagreements on the team arose, and to tracking everyone’s commitments over time.

Over the next few months, the senior management team identified how best to make decisions going forward, how to communicate in good times as well as under stress, and they resolved the Sales/Engagement Management hand-off. As a result, the company’s overall bottom line improved by 25% and the working relationships and satisfaction of the senior management team members increased significantly.

Process results:

Through this experience, each of the team members also learned how to more authentically listen to other people’s viewpoints and how to calmly and more effectively express their own. They learned that sometimes what drives other people’s behavior is not what it seems on the surface. The CMO and CTO in particular learned that people’s viewpoints are impacted as much by the role they play in the organization as by their personality. They used this knowledge to minimize jumping to conclusions before trying to understand the other person’s motivations and perspective.”

Question 1 : How did the senior management team intervention helped the organisation ?

Select one:

a. The management could identify the best way to make decisions going forward

b. The management knew how to communicate in good times as well as under stress

c. The management could resolve the Sales/Engagement Management hand-off

d. All of the above

Question 2

How did this strategy of team intervention help the organisation?

Select one:

a. The working relationships and satisfaction of the senior management team members increased significantly

b. The company’s overall bottom line improved by 25%

c. The company managed to change the roles in the management level

d. Both a and b

Question 3

What is the % of overall improvement?

Select one:

a. 50%

b. 25%

c. 30%

d. 45%

Question 4

What was the cause discovered for disagreement in their discussion on reasoning and perspective sharing?

Select one:

a. Misinterpretations and stylistic communication differences

b. Miscommunication

c. Misinterpretation

d. None of the above

Question 5

What was the first step taken to resolve the misunderstanding between the CMO and CTO?

Select one:

a. Explore the nature of their relationship

b. Different roles in the company

c. Different management styles and personalities

d. All of the above

Question 6

What was the issue found after the diagnostics interview?

Select one:

a. Miscommunications and turnover on the leadership team

b. Team dynamics

c. Team management

d. None of the above

Question 7

What was the next step taken after sorting the relationship between CMO and CTO

Select one:

a. Team meeting with the CEO

b. Team-wide meetings for discussion on thorny issues

c. Change of roles within the team

d. All of the above

Question 8

What was the result of team-wide meeting?

Select one:

a. They were able to make team goals

b. They could decide the targets for the year

c. Each of the officers made a series of commitments for actions to take in the next 3 quarters

d. None of the above

Question 9

What were the leanings for the senior management team from the intervention?

Select one:

a. How to manage team meetings

b. How to more authentically listen to other people’s viewpoints

c. How to calmly and more effectively express their own views

d. Both b and c

Question 10

Who were the team members that represented opposite views from one another on a series of topics facing the team?

Select one:

a. Chief Marketing Officer

b. Chief Technology Officer

c. Chief Finance officer

d. Both a and b

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Module V : Change Management

Case Study

When Asa Griggs Candler founded The Coca-Cola Company in the late 1800s, there was no way he knew his company would one day be valued at upwards of $180 billion. That’s a lot of money for a business that sells soft drinks.

But Coca-Cola didn’t become the powerful force it is today by sheer chance.

An illustration: In the 1980s, Coke’s biggest rival, Pepsi, was aggressively targeting it. This caused Coca-Cola to reevaluate its offerings. Eventually, the company decided to concoct a new, sweeter soda. They called it simply New Coke.

Unfortunately, the public didn’t take too kindly to the new beverage. But Coke’s executives didn’t let the mishap derail their success.

Quickly, management decided to pull New Coke and replace it with the older, established formula. Lo and behold, Coca-Cola Classic was born, and Coke maintained its market dominance.

Question 1 : During which period was Pepsi introduced as a rival to Coke?

Select one:

a. 1880s

b. 1980s

c. 1970s

d. None of the above

Question 2

How did Coca-Cola expand its market?

Select one:

a. By introducing simply New Coke

b. By introducing diversified products

c. By establishing the formula of Lo and behold

d. None of the above

Question 3

Introduction of which product shook the market for Coke?

Select one:

a. Mirinda

b. Limca

c. Pepsi

d. None of the above

Question 4

What change strategy did Coca-Coal adapt to compete with its rival Pepsi?

Select one:

a. Coca-Cola decided to concoct a new sweeter soda called simply New Coke

b. Coca-Cola introduced a substitute similar to Pepsi

c. Coca-Cola started advertising more

d. None of the above

Question 5

What does Coca-Cola primarily sell?

Select one:

a. Sweetened carbonated beverages

b. 500 brands to customers in over 200 countries

c. Sugary Drinks

d. All of the above

Question 6

What was the value of the company in 2016?

Select one:

a. $180 billion

b. $120 billion

c. $ 150 billion

d. $ 130 billion

Question 7

When does Coca-Cola enact on their change strategy?

Select one:

a. If there is a customer demand

b. If there is a drop in sales

c. If there is a drop in sales

d. If there is and market positioning change

Question 8

When the simply New Coke strategy did not work, what was the new change management step taken by the management?

Select one:

a. Pulled the New Coke and replace it with the older

b. Named the older coca-cola as Coca-Cola Classic

c. Established a formula Lo and behold

d. All of the above

Question 9

Which among the following are other products of Coca-Cola?

Select one:

a. DASANI

b. Vitamin water

c. Evian

d. All of the above

Question 10

Who is the founder of Coca-Cola?

Select one:

a. Asa Griggs Candler

b. Caleb Bradham

c. John Pemberton

d. None of the above

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Assignment 2

Case Study

“In the years since it was founded in 1973, the Sacramento Natural Foods Co-op has blossomed into a $15 million business. With 7,000 members/owners, it is the second largest single-store grocery cooperative in the nation in terms of sales and volume. However, when a vocal minority of its democratic membership quashed plans to expand to a second store, the business was at a crossroads. With tensions running high, Cultrera interviewed Eric Douglas of Leading Resources Inc. (LRI). Cultrera was impressed by Douglas’ track record for managing change and gaining consensus within large organizations. “I was looking for someone with really good communication skills,”Cultrera said.

D2K: Establishing Trust as a Foundation for Long-term Growth

Together Douglas and Cultrera mapped out a five-stage process they called “Directions 2000” or “D2K.” The process was carefully crafted to engage as many member-owners as possible in a productive dialogue with management and each other. At each stage of the process, Douglas guided the participants toward an understanding of the complex business issues under consideration while improving their communication and problem-solving skills. Because the issues were complex, and emotions were running high around the issue of expansion, flexibility had to be at the heart of the process itself.

They got into the process themselves and realized that changes needed to be made and the proceeded following the steps below:

Stage 1: Identifying Basic Values

The guiding force behind any effective strategic plan is a clearly articulated set of values and a strong vision. But with member-owners representing a broad demographic spectrum, getting their agreement on a common vision was extremely challenging. Douglas and LRI consultants addressed the challenge by organizing 13 focus groups – 200 people representing specific constituencies such as top shoppers, most active owners and staff – to brainstorm about values and vision.

Stage 2: Casting a Wider Net

Using input from the focus groups, LRI drafted a survey with 50 questions about values and visions and distributed it to all 7,000 Co-op member-owners. LRI’s analysis of the 1,645 returned surveys confirmed that pricing was most important to members. Member-owners were evenly divided on the question of whether to expand to additional locations. A third issue that came into focus from the survey was the 5% member-owner discount: Owners did not want to give it up, even if it meant they paid higher prices in the store.

Stage 3: Moving Beyond Conflict to Strategy

With the survey data in hand, a group of 25 people – comprised of 15 member-owners, seven members of the Board of Directors and three members of management – began working together as the D2K Planning Team under the guidance of LRI consultants.

Within a few weeks, the team had defined the purpose and values – what Douglas calls the “strategic foundation.” The team then faced the question of vision – and the deep conflict over whether or not the Co-op should expand to a second store.

As a first step, Douglas broke the drafting committee into two teams to generate deeper discussion. The resulting dialogue between the teams ultimately led to a draft vision that called for the Co-op to extend its services “to as many people as possible in the communities we serve.”

“This vision was based on a philosophy of inclusion,” said Keat who was a Planning Team member. “The Co-op offers something very special in the quality of its products, its support for local farmers, and its reliance on cooperative economic principles. Our vision was to share that.”

“We tested this vision again and again within the Planning Team,” Douglas said. As they grew more comfortable, team members used a combination of brainstorming exercises, management input and survey feedback to develop seven key goals to achieve the vision. LRI consultants carefully translated their decisions into a draft strategic plan.

Stage 4: Honoring the Process through Feedback

The next step was presenting the draft plan to member-owners. Rather than ask for “thumbs up or thumbs down,” LRI created a survey asking member-owners to rate each component of the plan, as well as the process itself. Member-owners were also invited to attend “town hall” forums to discuss the draft and provide feedback.

The resulting feedback was overwhelmingly positive. More than 95% of those responding said they supported the process. More than 90% said they supported the vision. Even more surprising was that, “Many of the member-owners who approved the plan had only been touched tangentially by the process – through taking the survey or reading about it in the Co-op’s newsletter,” Douglas said. “But because they had been touched, they supported the change.”

Stage 5: From Approval to Action

After unanimously voting to approve the plan, the Board handed it over to management to implement. “It makes my job as general manager a whole lot easier,” Cultrera said. “Now, when we run into pockets of controversy or resistance, it’s very easy to say, ‘Well, thank you. I really appreciate your input. But we heard from a lot of people who said this is what they want us to do.’ I feel like when there are other issues we need to face on a nitty-gritty level, we can call that process up again.”

Roadmap to the Future: From Plan to Action

That opportunity was right around the corner. Fresh from the D2K victory, the Co-op again hired LRI to implement one of the plan’s key initiatives. This was the hot button issue of deciding whether to keep or modify the 5% member-owner discount.

True to the D2K process model, Douglas and Cultrera ensured a high level of member-owner involvement at every stage. They convened a half-dozen “focus groups” to educate member-owners about the impacts of the discount. As with D2K, a Planning Team representing a broad spectrum of viewpoints was selected by LRI to explore alternatives and make a recommendation to the Board.

“At that point, we ran up against the fact that grocery store finance is not easy,” said Douglas. “Yet the team had to learn it in order to make a cogent decision.”

As team members became convinced of the wisdom of changing to the discount structure, some wanted to survey member-owners about the alternatives they were considering. “But a new survey would only confirm what the earlier survey told us,” Douglas said. “Without going through the education process, people would resist giving up the discount.” The team finally agreed to stage a series of forums that would bring member-owners from the Planning Team face to face with fellow member-owners still skeptical about making a change.

It was a critical part of the process that Mendenhall calls “transformative.” “One planning team member really turned the group around just on the force of her own presentation,” Mendenhall said. “As she talked about what she and the group had gone through, you’d start to see heads nod. You could see she felt it from the heart.”

With positive feedback from member-owners, the Board approved changing to an end-of-the-year patronage refund that has worked well at a number of co-ops throughout the country, combined with special pricing programs such as monthly category specials. Some of the original benefits – such as a 10% discount on Owner Appreciation Days – remained in force.

“We’ve learned that there are a variety of ways to involve members in decision-making, besides just sending everything out for a member vote,” said Mendenhall. “Communication and cooperative education is very important.”

Cultrera agrees. “Because we kept the lines of communication open with the ownership throughout this long process, we heard from people we had never heard from before. By the end of it, member-owners clearly honored the process, so they trusted the plan. It’s given the organization a tremendous amount of strength and ability to keep moving forward.”

The Co-op’s annual sales increased to $17 million. Its employees had received an across-the-board pay increase reflecting the plan’s commitment to a quality workplace. Meanwhile, the Co-op had begun looking at new locations for a second store, this time with the clear support of its owners.

Question 1 : According to Menden hall, what is important in decision-making?

Select one:

a. Communication

b. Cooperative Education

c. Talking to the team

d. Both a and b

Question 2

After the planing stage, what is the next step of presenting the draft plan called?

Select one:

a. Honoring the process through feedback

b. Moving beyond conflict to strategy

c. Casting a wider net

d. None of the above

Question 3

What is the new process introduced by Douglas and Cultrera?

Select one:

a. D2K

b. Directions 2000

c. D3K

d. Both a and b

Question 4

What was the step taken to approve the plan?

Select one:

a. Unanimously voting

b. Implementing the plan

c. Prepared the employee for new projects

d. None of the above

Question 5

Which among the following was the first step taken while incorporating the new process?

Select one:

a. Casting a Wider Net

b. Identifying Basic Values

c. Moving Beyond Conflict to Strategy

d. None of the above

Question 6

While identifying basic values how did Douglas and LRI address the challenges?

Select one:

a. By guiding the employees at every step

b. By organizing 13 focus groups – 200 people representing specific constituencies

c. By managing the employees

d. All of the above

Question 7

Who worked towards the planning of D2K after the survey?

Select one:

a. 15 members owners

b. 7 members of the Board of Directors

c. 3 members of management

d. All of the above

Question 8

Why did Douglas break the drafting committee into two teams?

Select one:

a. To generate deeper discussion

b. To reduce people in one forum

c. To manage employee problems

d. None of the above

Question 9

Why did Douglas guide the participants at every stage?

Select one:

a. Because the issues were complex

b. Because emotions were running high around the issue of expansion

c. Because flexibility had to be at the heart of the process itself

d. All of the above

Question 10

Why was the new process crafted?

Select one:

a. To engage as many member-owners as possible in a productive dialogue with management and each other

b. To improve employees communication skills

c. To manage employee problems

d. None of the above

10 on 10

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